Posted 27 July 2000 - 04:54 AM
OKNECEK, shat em xntrum!!!!
Naxorok shnorhakal em!!
Posted 27 July 2000 - 01:02 PM
yes verjers statsa mi girg HAyastanits / vernagir@ 1975 - 1995 ASALA Hasastani azatagrutyan Hye Gaxtni Banak / Vasn Hayurtyan vasn Hayreyats / bavakanin hamarot tvyalner kan iyster.
ka nayev Girk vor@ grvats e Monte Melkonyani kormits vstah em Hayastanum shat heshtutyamb kaor es gtnel Hayeren yev anleren lezunerov.
vernagir@ |Irakanutyun ASALA| sa karor es nayev dzer berel Janfedayi web pagi Monte melkonyan found web pagits. kame mial gry irents irenk Yerevanum nuynpes Offic unen vstah em k@patasxanen.
Posted 28 July 2000 - 05:20 AM
Shat shnorhakal em!!!
Posted 08 August 2000 - 08:06 AM
June 20, 1999
Terrorism as a Political Issue
In January 1975, ASALA (Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia), hitherto an unknown organization, bombed the World Council of Churches (WCC) office in Beirut and since then had placed itself within both the Middle Eastern terrorist complex and the International terrorist system. During the period of time between 1975 and 1982 dozens of Turkish diplomats and a lot of installations of Turkish and Western interests had been the target of Asalas militant activities.
Asalas activities were actually carried out by a small group of people, but due to their spectacular nature they were very successful in bringing the issue of the Armenian genocide to the forefront of international awareness.The public opinion Asala appealed to was often that of the world at large rather than that of the worldwide Armenian Community.
The roots of Asala can be traced in the accumulation of frustration resulted from the international communitys lack of interest in the Armenian genocide committed by the Turks in the course of World war I, and a tendency among western pro-Turkish scholars to deny the genocide as a historical fact. Furthermore, during the mid-1970s the militant milieu surrounding the civil war in Lebanon inspired and stimulated young Armenians to resort to political terrorism.
The pro-Asala Popular Movements started producing their own publications with an increasingly revolutionary and political content. These supporter groups, like the Lebanon-based army itself, included a wide spectrum of political views from nationalists to marxists. Within Asala itself, the nationalists tended to be preoccupied with military actions more or less for their own sake. Others in the Asala leadership, however, felt the need for a coherent political program, which would provide an overall strategy to guide their actions. These found common cause with Popular Movements and also drew strength from their links with other militant groups including PLO.
At the end of 1981 Asala published an eight-point political program which it described as the political line that the Popular Movement for Asala will support. This was the result of long discussions with leaders of the Popular Movements, with a view to eventually forming a united organization, and was clearly a compromise between the views of the marxists and the nationalists.
In this Asala identified its enemies as Turkish Imperialism backed by local reaction and international imperialism. Revolutionary violence was the principal means to achieve the liberation of Armenian territories. Asala supported those who reject the authority of the oppressing classes and will work to strengthen and expand coalitions within the international revolutionary system. Asala called for transformation of Soviet Armenia into a revolutionary base for the long peoples war.
In addition to focusing world attention on the Armenian genocide, Asala had given hope to the younger Armenian generation, galvanisingthem into activity either directly or as political supporters of the Armyworking for the defence and release of activists arrested in Europe and the US. The traditional Armenian parties in diaspora like the well known Tashnak were forced to set up guerilla groups of their own, like the Justice Commandos for Armenian Genocide and the Armenian Revolutionary Army, in order to stop their youth from flocking to Asala.
The fundamental difference between the Justice Commandos and Asala lies in their political aims, with the former stopping at international recognition of the Armenian genocide. Asala, on the other hand, came to be seen as the basis for a widespread Armenian liberation movement.
Everything changed with Israels invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and the subsequent expulsion of the PLO and most of Asala from Beirut. Asalas isolation from its supporter groups and its political allies, who were preoccupied with other matters during this period, had a devastating effect on its activities.
After the expulsion from Beirut Asala transfered many of its activities in Syria. With the military wing in control, it formed a working relationship with the anti-PLO Palestinian radical Abu Nidal. This would explain the dramatic cooling in PLO-Asala relations at the end of 1982. Indeed, the PLO was said to have begun working against Asala, and when Fatah leader Abu-Iyad (Salah Khalaf) visited France in December 1982 he gave the French security servises details of Asala activists, including photographs.
Discovery of the Abu-Nidal connection was another factor in the total disillusion of the Armenian organizations with Asala in the wake of Beirut. In April, 1983 the Armenian National Movement (France) joined the Popular Movements in the UK and the USA to form a new organization, the Democratic Front.
Asalas terrorism had arguably had a greater ideological content and had been oriented towards discrediting the official Turkish thesis about the Armenian Genocide and persuading the international public opinion that the Turkish State has no right to rule over Turkish Armenia.
The establishment of Asala was a belated reaction to the Genocide the Armenian people underwent by the Turks, and an indirect result of the tranformation of Beirut into the terrorist capital during the 1970s.
Asalas activities never had the possibility to bring about a new state of affairs which Armenians would like more. Undeniably, in short perspective, Asalas activities revived the Armenian question, and here lies the main of its achievements, but in long perspective, it deeply divided the Armenian Diaspora and offered an opportunity to the Turkish state to divert the international attention by victimizing herself.
Christos Iacovou is a postgraduate student of Middle Eastern Studies at Tel Aviv University. This article is a summary of his research Asala: History and Ideology, originally written in Greek
Posted 08 August 2000 - 10:15 AM
reestablish an independent Armenian state within the territory occupied by the former Republic of Armenia during World War I within eastern Turkey. It has pursued
this goal through attacks on Turkish diplomats and economic interests outside Turkey in the belief that Turkey bears responsibility for the slaughter of Armenians and
the destruction of the Armenian Republic that occurred in 1915.
JCAG differs from the other major Armenian terrorist group, the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA, q.v.) in two important respects:
First, JCAG is primarily nationalistic rather than Marxist-Leninist. Therefore it has relied almost exclusively on private support from Armenian communities rather
than state-sponsorship from countries hostile to Turkey. Second, the members of JCAG, being very Westernized nationalists, value Western and world public
opinion highly and therefore take pains to avoid harming non-Turkish nationals mindful of the potential harm such actions could render the Armenian cause.
Nonetheless JCAG has conducted attacks on Turkish targets within the United States, making themselves felt there as a very serious terrorist threat to law and
An analysis of 29 noteworthy actions by JCAG in the period from 1975-1983 showed that 52 percent (=15) involved assassination of Turkish diplomats, 2 of them
in the United States and another in Canada; 45 percent (=13) involved bombings and arsons of Turkish diplomatic, tourism, and commercial offices; while 3 percent
(=1) represented an unfulfilled threat against Turkish targets. JCAG terrorism within the United States took place entirely from January 1982 to May 1982: On 29
January 1982, Kemal Arikan, consul general of Turkey in Los Angeles, was shot and killed as he was driving home. On 22 March 1982, the offices of Orhan
Gunduz, honorary Turkish consul general in Boston, were firebombed and he himself was shot and killed on 4 May 1982. A conspiracy to bomb the home of the
honorary consul general of Turkey in Philadelphia was foiled in October 1982. Since then nothing further has been heard of JCAG either in the United States or
abroad, a curious fact that requires some explanation.
On 15 July 1983, the ASALA bombed Orly Airport near Paris, killing 7 and wounding over 60 bystanders. This event led to a crisis within ASALA as many
members protested what they believed to be counterproductive violence against non-Turkish nationals. The dissenting faction became known as
ASALA-Revolutionary Movement, to be distinguished from the mainline ASALA-Militant. Beginning also in July 1983, the name "Justice Commandos of the
Armenian Genocide" dropped from use while actions similar to those of JCAG began to be claimed in the name of the "Armenian Revolutionary Army'' (ARA).
Many analysts believe that the JCAG merely changed its name to ARA and that it is essentially the same organization. It is also possible that members of
ASALA-RM and JCAG may have amalgamated themselves into the new ARA. An analysis of 7 actions by ARA in 1983-1985 show that 43 percent (=3) of these
involved assassinations; 14 percent (=2) involved hostage and siege situations; while one car bombing and an unfilled threat each accounted for 14 percent of ARA
activities. While ARA made the same disclaimers as had JCAG that it intended no harm to non-Turkish bystanders in contrast to earlier JCAG operations, at least
six non-Turkish nationals were killed as a result of these operations.
In fact, very little is known about the memberships of these groups, their internal structures, or their relations with possible sponsor states or with other terrorist
groups. What little is known about the Armenian groups indicates that they have been involved in factional disputes and internecine fighting that has reduced their
effective presence as terrorist groups since the mid-1980s.
Posted 08 August 2000 - 10:17 AM
Armenian Terrorism and the Armenian-American
Beginning with the cold-blooded murder of Turkey's Consul General in Los Angeles,
Mehmet Baydar, and his young deputy, Consul Bahadr Demir in January 1973,
Armenian terrorists waged a relentless campaign of assassination against Turkish
diplomats and officials. For the next 15 years, Armenian terrorists murdered 73
innocent men, women, and children, including 41 Turkish diplomats in the United
States, Canada, Europe, the Middle East, and Australia. In addition, the spree of
Armenian political terrorism involved bombings that claimed the lives of innocent
bystanders in France and Turkey as well as several hostage-taking incidents.
With the exception of the first event in Los Angeles that was carried out by a lone
Armenian-American, all other terrorist acts were carried out by the two main
Armenian terrorist groups, Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia
(ASALA) and the Justice Commandos for the Armenian Genocide (JCAG). The
worldwide campaign of Armenian terrorism against Turkish diplomats usually involved
two or three gunmen stalking the official travelling in his car between home and work,
and shooting at the intended victim when his car stopped at a traffic light. Although few
of the Armenian assassins were apprehended, most have eluded capture by the
The United States and Canada ranked high in terms of the number of Armenian
terrorist acts around the world. In addition to the murders of Mehmet Baydar and
Bahadr Demir, Kemal Arkan, the Turkish Consul General in Los Angeles was
assassinated by two Armenian terrorists in January 1982, and the Honorary Turkish
Consul General in Boston, Orhan Gündüz, was killed in May 1982. Both attacks were
claimed by JCAG. While an Armenian terrorist named Hampig Sassounian was
charged with Arkan's murder, Gündüz's killer was never apprehended. During the
same year, Kani Güngör, a commercial counselor at the Turkish Embassy in Ottawa
was seriously wounded and permanently paralyzed by an ASALA member and
Turkey's military attache in Ottawa, Colonel Atilla Altkat was shot to death by a
gunman of the JCAG.
In March 1995, the Turkish Ambassador in Ottawa was seriously injured and his wife
and daughter were taken hostage by the JCAG-ARA (Armenian Revolutionary
Army). In addition to assassinations, Armenian terrorists frequently planted bombs at
various targets and threatened the lives of many Turks and friends of Turkey. At least
two other potentially deadly Armenian terrorist attacks planned against the Honorary
Turkish Consuls in Tampa and Philadelphia were aborted either by the intended victim
or by the police.
The Armenian terrorist campaign against the representatives of Turkey,
Turkish-Americans, and friends of Turkey was widely criticized by the U.S.
government and in the media. By the early 1980s, U.S. officials and American experts
on international terrorism ranked the Armenian terrorist groups among the deadliest
terrorist organizations in existence and a major threat to law and order in the United
States. Similarly, especially in view of the indiscriminate killings and bombings that
targeted both Turks and others, there was a growing backlash against the Armenian
terrorists in Western Europe as well.
However, some Armenian-Americans, including professors teaching at prestigious
universities in this country, prominent writers and elected public officials, expressed
their satisfaction at the fact that Armenian terrorism had led to widespread publicity
about the events that took place in eastern Turkey during World War I. The typical
attitude of many Armenians was that while they did not necessarily approve of the
killings of Turkish officials, they were nevertheless happy that these events had put the
spotlight on the alleged "genocide" of the Armenians by the Turks more than 80 years
However, there were also many Armenian-Americans who did not shy away from
expressing their open support for the terrorists. The trial of Gourgen Mkritch Yanikian
in Santa Barbara in 1973 was a harbinger of things to come: Yanikian, who had
carried out one of the most heinous double-murders in the state's history, was treated
as a "hero" by the crowd of Armenians who had gathered in the courtroom.
Armenian-Americans quickly mobilized and formed a group called "American Friends
of Armenian Martyrs" to raise funds for his defense and to use the court case as "an
educational campaign to bring the story of Turkish genocide before the American and
world attention."(14) Until his death almost a decade later, a few months after he was
released from prison on the order of the then California governor, George
Deukmejian, Yanikian continued to receive gifts and supportive letters from
Armenian-Americans. Similarly, after Hampig Sassounian was found guilty of
murdering the Turkish Consul-General in Los Angeles, Kemal Arkan, a campaign to
provide funds for his defense raised $250,000 in small donations from
Armenian-Americans throughout the United States.(15) Armenian-Americans
launched similar campaigns for moral support and fund-raising for several other
Armenian terrorists who were captured by the authorities in this country and in
In his study of Armenian terrorism, Michael Gunter provides a detailed description of
the attitudes expressed by some of the leading members of the Armenian-American
community about the Armenian terrorists:
"Harry Derderian, a leading official of the Armenian National Committee (the
Dashnag's political arm), for example, told a reporter: "If terrorism is a contributing
factor in getting people's attention, I can go along with it." Commenting about the
events of 1915 and the current terrorism, Armand Arabian, a superior court judge in
California, declared: "It is the right of Armenians to seek redress . . . Some seek it on
street corners." After Hampig Sassounian was found guilty of murdering the Turkish
Consul in Los Angeles in 1982 . . . Bishop Yeprem Tabakian, the prelate of the
Western Prelacy of the Armenian Apostolic Church, stated: "Hampig's conviction is an
indictment directed against all Armenians." Archbishop Vatche Hovsepian, the primate
of the Western Diocese of the Armenian Church, added: "I am truly shocked about the
verdict." George Mason, the moderate publisher of The [Armenian] California
Courier, concluded: "There are many Armenian Americans in California who feel great
sympathy and support for Armenian terrorists. I have talked to numerous peaceful,
fair, and thoughtful men who have expressed support for the terrorists."
Levon Marashlian, of the Glendale College of Armenian history and culture, said
Armenian terrorists are "patriots who have been waiting for 70 years." An Armenian
student of Dr. Dennis Papazian, professor of history and the University of Michigan in
Dearborn, was quoted as saying: "In a way, I'm kind of proud of the terrorists."(17)
The support that Armenian-Americans gave to the assassins of Turkish diplomats was
also reflected in the Armenian publications in this country. For example, the January
28, 1982 issue of The Armenian Reporter published a New Year's message by Ara
Alex Yenikomshian, a leading member of ASALA. The message, a transcript of the
broadcast that was made in Beirut, discussed openly the terrorist activities that were
carried out by ASALA during 1982 and exhorted all Armenians to "action" until
"occupied Armenian lands are liberated."(18 )The openness with which a prominent
Armenian newspaper in this country lent its pages to one of the top leaders of ASALA
clearly showed the degree of sympathy and support that many Armenian-Americans
extended to a terrorist organization that was considered to be a threat to law and
order by the FBI and other American law enforcement agencies.
The direct or indirect support that was given to Armenian terrorism by many
Armenian-Americans played a major role in the acts of violence that led to scores of
fatalities in this country and elsewhere in the world during the 1970s and 1980s.
Undoubtedly, the efforts of the Armenian propagandists to portray Turks and Turkey
as the enemy of the Armenian people, to dehumanize the Turks, and to glorify the
assassinations of the Young Turk leaders by Armenian terrorists after World War I
were all influential in leading young Armenians toward the path of terrorism and
violence. Studies on terrorism show that many terrorists are drawn to violence when
they are able to overcome moral restraint through the process of socialization,
collective beliefs, influence of history, and family traditions.(19) These studies also
show how through indoctrination and propaganda, individuals can be "transformed
rapidly into skilled combatants, who may feel little compunction and even a sense of
pride in taking human life."(20) One of the main objectives of the Armenian
propaganda machine in the United States is to perpetuate the "genocide" myth to such
an extreme that taking revenge against the Turks through any means, including acts of
violence against Turkish officials, becomes morally acceptable for young
Armenian-Americans. An Armenian terrorist, who got caught with four others in 1982
after five sticks of dynamite and a timing device was found in their luggage at Boston's
Logan International Airport, underscored this point when he said later in an interview:
"We had no intentions of plea bargaining . . . because we sincerely thought that what
we had done was morally justifiable."(21)
The dehumanization of the intended victims is another characteristic feature of terrorist
mentality and behavior. As one expert notes: "Once dehumanized, the potential victims
are no longer viewed as persons with feelings, hopes, and concerns, but as subhuman
objects . . . It is easier, for example, to brutalize victims when they are referred to as
'worms'."(22) The behavior of the Armenian terrorists conformed to this pattern. With
their constant vilification and dehumanization of "the Turk" in their writings, Armenian
propagandists in this country created a favorable environment for the wave of violence
and terrorism by young Armenian terrorists against Turkish officials for nearly two
decades beginning in the early 1970s. The comments of John D. Hagopian in an
Armenian-American newspaper is a typical example of this effort to divest the Turks
of human qualities: "You [the Turks] are the offspring of those who butchered my
people, and I have no love for you whatsoever. Yes, God made you and your fathers.
But he also made snakes and jackals and hyenas, and Oswald, and Manson."(23)
The glorification of the Armenian terrorists who assasinated the Young Turk leaders
after World War I by the Armenian propagandists and writers has similarly contributed
to the attractiveness of terrorism for some young American Armenians. Books and
articles written about the Armenian terrorists of the 1920s portray them as national
heroes who fulfilled their mission of taking revenge against the Turks rather than
criminals or terrorists. Individuals who carried out these assasinations are presented to
the younger generations of Armenians in this country as virtual role models who dared
to challenge the historical "injustice" that was done to the Armenian nation by the
Turks.24 Decades of hero-worshipping of those who assassinated Young Turk
leaders influenced the motives and behavior of those young Armenians who chose to
follow in their footsteps more than 60 years later. It is also worth noting the similarities
and continuities between the two waves of Armenian community mobilized to raise
funds for the terrorists with the Armenian churches and community centers in America
taking the lead. And in both instances, the actions of the Armenian terrorists were
supported directly or indirectly by many Armenian-Americans for publicizing their
"cause" and reviving an interest about the Armenian question in American public
Intimidation in Academia
14 The Armenian Mirror-Spectator, March 24, 1973.
15 Michael M. Gunter, "Pursuing the Just Cause of Their People": A Study of
Contemporary Armenian Terrorism (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press), p. 74.
16 See, e.g. the coverage of the "campaign of solidarity" with Max-Hrair Klindjian,
who was caught after he unsuccessfully tried to assassinate Turkey's Ambassador to
Switzerland in The Armenian Weekly, January 19, 1982.
17 Gunter, "Pursuing the Just Cause of Their People:" A Study of Contemporary
Armenian Terrorism, pp. 99-100.
18 "ASALA's A. Yenikomshian Addresses New Year's Message to Armenians" The
Armenian Reporter January 26, 1982.
19 Martha Crenshaw, "Questions to be answered, research to be done, knowledge to
be applied," in Walter Reich (ed.), Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies,
Theologies, States of Minds (New York, NY, Cambridge University Press), pp.
20 Albert Bandura, "Mechanisms of moral disengagement," in Reich (ed), Origins of
Terrorism, p. 163.
21 Quoted by Jeffrey D. Simon in his The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience With
Terrorism (Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press), p. 317.
22 Ibid. 181.
23 John D. Hagopian, "We will never forget," The Armenian Reporter, January 23,
24 See, e.g., Edward Alexander, A Crime of Vengeance (New York, NY: Free Press,
1991), and Jacques Derogy, Resistance and Revenge (New Brunswick, N.J., 1990).
Posted 08 August 2000 - 10:19 AM
Armenians--they have such strange names and facial features, an aberrant language
(with peculiar-looking alphabets), and a distinctly odd culture. I always felt this
strangeness within myself, and I reckoned that we were, somehow, different from others.
However, I later learned that Armenians are, instead, distinctly unique. I also presumed
that I knew enough about these "strangers"--about the Genocide, Tigran the Great, William
Saroyan, and the Armenians of California. How can one not know anything about their
culture and history? But, I discovered that my knowledge was very limited and inadequate-
-there is always something more, among the masses, that comes across your face as a non-
coincidental surprise. Then you hear yourself say: "Wow, is it really true that Armenians
did that? I had no idea!"
I registered for Armenian Studies 10 (Introduction to Armenian Studies) for the
1995 fall semester with Dr. Dickran Kouymjian, carrying all of my pre-conceived opinions
and convictions about Armenians. Within the first hour of the class session, I knew that
the class would offer "something" more than just the lecture hours, exams, and reports.
Instead, I sensed that I would encounter challenges that would ultimately reshape my
For the first seven weeks of the semester, we studied a book written by Michael J.
Arlen called Passage to Ararat. This book was primarily about Arlen's journey to Armenia
which led him to discover his roots and allowed him to come in terms with his father, his
Armenianess, and himself. Arlen, who at times claimed he, "Hated being an Armenian,"
covered nearly all subject matters that Armenians have experienced from the birth of their
nationhood. For instance, the author wrote about the Kings of Nairi, the Kingdom of
Urartu, Tigran the Great, the Armenian community of Fresno, Armenian rug merchants,
Armenian architecture, the Dashnaks, and most important of all, the 1915 Genocide. These
matters concern Armenians, yet Arlen crafted his novel in a manner that grasped the
attention of non-Armenians as well. He brought out universal questions in life, showing
that Armenians have the same needs as other human beings.
Why did the 1915 Genocide take place, and why is it that Armenians, after 80
years, have not yet healed their souls? Coming into the class, I knew the answer for the
first question, but I had difficulties with the second. Several films were shown in class to
help clarify the misunderstandings or our misconceptions about the massacres, such as An
Armenian Journey, The Hidden Holocaust, Everyone's Not Here: Families of the
Armenian Genocide, and The Armenian Case. In the Armenian Studies 10, Syllabus
Reader, we further examined the details of the Genocide. All of this, along with Dr.
Kouymjian's lectures, served the key to my understanding of, "The crime of the century."
I knew that the Turkish government completely denied the Genocide ever taking place in
history, but I further learned that they alleged that the Armenians were revolting against the
Ottoman Empire and that they were the ones who massacred the Turks. Their proof for
this misguided assertion were the guns that were collected from the Armenians and the
Turks who were killed during W.W.I. Perhaps, those who survived the Genocide can not
"forget and forgive" because of the guilt they sense for being fortunate enough to have
escaped death, or because of the anger they feel for not being recognized as the victims of a
calculated crime and instead being portrayed as the aggressors.
We, then, went on to study about the Armenian Apostolic church. We began with
the administrative structure or the hierarchy of the Apostolic church. From here on, it
seemed as if the church was indirectly regulated through politics. For instance, from
1441-1956, Armenians were served by a Catholicos in Etchmiadzin and a second one in
Sis/Antelias; this created a division in the church. Also, Armenia was overtaken by Russia
in 1921, and this caused another problem, because Communists were against religion;
thus, all of the monasteries were closed and the Catholics in Armenia turned to Antelias for
help. Armenians were then caught in the trap of Communism and the Cold War. The
effects of this reached the heart of Fresno and a clear division was apparent between Holy
Trinity Armenian Apostolic Church and St. Paul Armenian Apostolic Church. (Of course,
the details are too lengthy to explain.)
Beyond this, we had to visit two Armenian churches, one Apostolic and one
Protestant; then, we were to write a report on the differences that exist between them.
Therefore, I visited Holy Trinity and Pilgrim Congregational. I am a member of an
Apostolic Armenian Church, and I never had the opportunity to visit any of the Protestant
Churches. This was a phenomenal experience, for I was startled to recognize the
uniqueness of each church. Although I belong to the Apostolic Church, I must confess that
I do not completely comprehend all the traditions of my religion. Many young Armenians
face this conflict; I blame this situation on myself and not on my parents, the Church, or its
structure. Intellectually, to understand the traditions of worshipping God in the Apostolic
Church, one has to recognize the symbolism of the Batarak.. On the other hand, one can
just step into the Protestant Church and know exactly what is occurring. The Armenian
Protestant Church is "Americanized." It's user-friendly--the services are to the point,
direct, and understandable, and it's modernized to fulfill the needs of the people and to help
them confront the issues and predicaments of modern society. The Apostolic Church,
however, aims to preserve cultural traditions, in particular, the Armenian language and
history. In a sense, we are cautioned to always look back (to examine where we came
from) before taking any steps forward. Personally, I enjoyed the services of the Protestant
church, because it was intellectually direct. However, I attend church to be spiritually
shaken, not intellectually. Therefore, the Apostolic church resolves the situation, even if I
do not totally comprehend all of what it has to offer.
Next, we studied one of the most magnificent (American) writers of the 20th
century-William Saroyan. I never studied William Saroyan's writings, while attending
school in the Fresno Unified School District (other than just reading one of his short plays
in my Ethnic Studies class). However, I managed to read some of his works on a "part-
time" basis. Most of the students in the class had not read the works of Saroyan. How
could a person grow up in the Valley and not know Saroyan? I do not understand why
administrators or individual instructors make certain that their students learn something
about a local citizen who later became a world renowned writer? In class, we studied a
short story called The Armenian Mouse, another one called The Daring Young Man on the
Flying Trapeze, and finally we read two of the three Saroyan plays that were edited (in An
Armenian Trilogy) by Dr. Kouymjian, Armenians and Bitlis. Saroyan proudly admitted he
was an Armenian, and believing in the human spirit, he acknowledged Armenians are part
of the human race. In other words, Armenians should be classified as a minority group
that is an alliance of the majority, and not exclusive of it.
Finally, we ended the class with two subjects, the Armenian militant movement and
the Armenian community of Fresno. From 1975 to 1983, young Armenians developed
terrorist ideas towards Turkish government officials to gain the attention of the world about
the Genocide. For 60 years, the peaceful marches and demonstrations never grabbed the
mindfulness of the media; the aim of the two terrorist organizations, the Armenian Secret
Army for the Liberation of Armenia and the Justice Commandos for the Armenian
Genocide, was to resolve this situation. The media breathes to cover accounts that involve
drama and action, and no one realistically cared to hear about 1.5 million people who were
massacred in the Ottoman Empire infinite decades ago. The young radicals, having realized
this point, began to kill Turkish ambassadors, set bombs, high-jack planes and carry out
other revolutionary actions. By the end of the movement, the world heard about the
Genocide and Turkey was compelled to give an explanation of history. However, Turkey
not only continued to deny the Genocide, but it proclaimed that there was a civil war and
the Armenians were the ones who massacred the Turks. It is ironic to realize how violence
called upon violence and that it was thought to be the only way to solve the "Armenian
Question" for the Turks and the question of the Genocide for the Armenians. One side
attempted, viciously, to end human life in its masses, while the fragmented side struggled
out of desperation to reveal the savagery and inhumanity of it all.
At last, we ended the course with the Armenian community of Fresno and the
history of its settlement in the Valley. To help us understand the background of the
community, we viewed a documentary called, Strangers in a Promised Land. This film,
which was narrated by former Governor George Deukmajian, illustrated how the
community grew from the late 1890's to the early 1980's. In the beginning, Armenians
were treated as second-class citizens and were considered to be inferior, but with their hard
work and hard-earned fortunes many became leading citizens of the Valley. Today, there
exists diversity within the Armenian community of Fresno with Armenians continuing to
immigrate to the region from counties of the Middle East, Russia, the Republic of Armenia,
and Mediterranean countries. Personally, I consider Fresno to be a model community for
the Armenians in the Diaspora.
Yes, this is what I learned, but it's only about one fifth of what was covered in the
lectures. I thought I knew enough about my culture? What a funny joke. I now realize
that I need to learn more about my culture and the human culture to become a better citizen
of both cultures. Armenian Studies 10, introduction to Armenian Studies was more of an
introduction to understanding the human self in its deepest uncensored and universal form.
There is nothing strange, aberrant, peculiar, or odd about Armenians. We are not
strangers. We are just six or seven million people roaming about the globe, trying to
preserve our "i-a-n's" and "y-a-n's".
Posted 08 August 2000 - 10:21 AM
Armenian Studies Program
Twenty years ago I decided that the new Armenian Studies Program I had just formed needed a newspaper. Why a newspaper?
It is rare that an academic program in a university publish a paper, but in that very academic year, Armenian Studies, was transferred
from the School of Art and Humanities to the Ethnic Studies Program in the School of Social Sciences. I noticed that two ethnic
newspapers were published from time to time as supplements to the Daily Collegian: Uhuru, the newspaper of African American students
and La Voz de Azatlan by Hispanic and Latino students. It was important that Armenian students have a vehicle of express, a paper of
information and commentary not just for the four or five hundred Armenians on campus but for the entire student body and for the
Armenian community at large.
There was little precedence for such an Armenian university newspaper, since other than Fresno, there was no U.S. campus at
the time that had such a large Armenian student body. The only other example I could recall at the time, was the Armenian student
newspaper at the American University of Beirut in the 1930s. Since I had profited greatly as a writer for my college newspaper, the
Daily Cardinal at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, I knew the experience would complement a college education and give those
involved an extra asset.
The next step was to convince the Media Council of the University that such a paper was justified and to get a budget from the
same body to produce it. The idea was well received. The paper would be a supplement of the Daily Collegian and inserted in it. The
next step was finding a staff. As advisor of the Armenian Students Organization, I knew that I could count on some of the more active
members of the organization. I was also blessed in a sense with two young and brilliant students who were journalism majors, Mark
Malkasian and Mark Najarian, soon to be joined by Bill Erysian, the latter was already working for the Fresno Bee and the former would
soon be working for it also.
Another step in the process was finding an appropriate name. I finally opted for Hye Sharzhoom and the students involved
seemed to accept it after I explained why I chose it. The paper was in my mind to be more than just informational. I wanted it to serve
as a form of activism. At the time Armenians in the diaspora were deeply concerned by the political violence associated with such
organizations as the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) and the Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide
(JCAG). Armenians around the world were speaking out openly about their forgotten genocide. In France a liberal Armenian journal
entitled Hye Baykar (The Armenian Struggle) was capturing the imagination of Armenian youth in Europe. It too was a newspaper run by
young college age intellectuals, though not affiliated with any school or organization. So I thought Hye Sharzhoom, the Armenian
Movement, would be an appropriate and committed title. After the first few issues, when the editors and some of the staff writers
were being kidded by their schoolmates asking what kind of a ìmovementî was that, we switched to another sense of the word
There were two major purposes to having such a journal: 1) to give students hands-on experience in the production of a
newspaper, 2) to afford the Armenian Studies Program and the Armenian Students Association a convenient and regular instrument of
communication between the campus and the community at large. Both goals have been amply met. Hundreds of students have served as
editors or staff writers over the past twenty years. Many of them have gone on to become professionals infields where writing is
fundamental. From the beginning I decided that paper would be distributed free to anyone who wished anywhere in the United States
or abroad. As its success grew and postage and printings costs skyrocketed, the paper made appeals for support.
The paper also provided continuity to the Armenian Studies Program. Reading through its 63 issues is rediscovering the history of
Armenian studies at Fresno State. The role of the advisor has always been important to the success of the paper. The great difficulty
facing any university club and more so a university newspaper is the transient nature of it officers and staff. Students come and go.
After working closely with a staff developing their inner resources, they suddenly graduate, and the search for replacements starts
again. Both the current advisor, Barlow Der Mugrdechian and myself in the first decades served as the stable element from one group of
students to the next.
We are especially fortunate this twentieth anniversary year to have an outstanding editor, Arakel Arisian, and staff, both
competent and full of enthusiasm. The paper as the oldest (the only?) continuously published Armenian university newspaper in the
world has gained wide recognition throughout the world; its article are regularly reprinted in other papers. Itís readers are loyal and
supportive. Their comments both written and verbal serve as an encouragement to our students. There is now a Hye Sharzhoom
tradition, and after twenty years, even the students take pride in its continuing and accept the burden of getting it out four times a year.
The students and the advisor Barlow Der Mugrdechian would very much like to hear from the readers of Hye Sharzhoom,
comments and suggestions. Please write to us in this special year and tell us how you have reacted to what the students have had to
report to you during the past forty semesters.
Posted 08 August 2000 - 11:00 PM
January 27, 1973 Santa Barbara, California
The Armenian Gourgen Yanikian, a U.S. citizen, invites the
Turkish Consul General, Mehmet Baydar, and the Consul,
Bahadir Demir to a luncheon. The unsuspecting diplomats
accept the friendly invitation. Gourgen Yanikian murders his two
guests. He is sentenced to life imprisonment.
April 4, 1973 Paris
Bombings at the Turkish Consulate General and the offices of
Turkish Airlines (THY). Extensive damage.
October 26, 1973 New York
Attempted bombing of the Turkish Information Office. The bomb
is discovered in time and defused. A group calling itself the
"Yanikian Commandos" claims responsibility. They want the
release of the double murderer of Santa Barbara, Gourgen
Yanikian, who insidiously murdered two Turkish diplomats.
February 7, 1975 Beirut
Attempted bombing of the Turkish Information and Tourism
Bureau. The bomb explodes while being defused. A Lebanese
policeman is injured. The "Prisoner Gourgen Yanikian Group"
February 20, 1975 Beirut
The "Yanikian" group demanding the release of the double
murderer of Santa Barbara strikes again. Extensive damage is
caused by a bomb explosion at the THY offices. ASALA
(Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia) also
claims responsibility for the bombing.
October 22, 1975 Vienna
The Turkish Ambassador, Danis Tunalgil, is assassinated in
his study by three Armenian terrorists. ASALA claims
October 24, 1975 Paris
Ambassador Ismail Erez and his driver, Talip Yener, are
murdered. The ASALA and the JCAG (Justice Commandos for
the Armenian Genocide) dispute responsibility.
October 28, 1975 Beirut
Grenade attack on the Turkish Embassy. The ASALA claims
February 16, 1976 Beirut
The First Secretary of the Turkish Embassy, Oktar Cirit, is
assassinated in a restaurant on Hamra Street. The ASALA claims
May 17, 1976 Frankfurt, Essen, Cologne
Consulates General in Frankfurt, Essen and Cologne are the
targets of simultaneous bomb attacks.
May 28, 1976 Zurich
Bomb attacks at the offices of the Turkish Labor Attache and the
Garanti Bank. Extensive damage. A bomb in the Turkish Tourism
Bureau is defused in time. Responsibility is claimed by the
May 2, 1977 Beirut
The cars of the Military Attache, Nahit Karakay, and the
Administrative Attache, Ilhan Özbabacan, are destroyed. The
two diplomats are uninjured. Credit is claimed by the ASALA.
May 14, 1977 Paris
Bomb attack at the Turkish Tourism Bureau. Extensive damage.
The "New Armenian Resistance Group" claims responsibility.
June 6, 1977 Zurich
Bomb attack at the store of a Turkish citizen, Hüseyin Bülbül.
June 9, 1977 Rome
Assassination of the Turkish Ambassador to the Holy See, Taha
Carm. He dies soon after the attack. The JCAG claims
October 4, 1977 Los Angeles
Bomb attack at the house of Professor Stanford Shaw, who
teaches Ottoman history at the University of California in Los
Angeles (UCLA). Responsibility is claimed by an "Armenian
Group of 28."
January 2, 1978 Brussels
Bomb attack at a building containing Turkish banking services.
The "New Armenian Resistance" claims credit.
June 2, 1978 Madrid
Terrorist attack on the automobile of the Turkish Ambassador,
Zeki Kuneralp. His wife, Necla Kuneralp, the retired Turkish
Ambassador Besir Balcoglu die immediately in the rain of
gunfire. The Spanish chauffeur, Antonio Torres, dies of his
injuries in the hospital. ASALA and JCAG claim responsibility.
December 6, 1978 Geneva
A bomb explodes in front of the Turkish Consulate General.
Extensive damage. The "New Armenian Resistance Group"
December 17, 1978 Geneva
A bomb explodes at the THY Bureau. ASALA claims
July 8, 1979 Paris
The French capital experiences four bomb attacks in a single
day. The first is at the THY offices; the next at the offices of the
Turkish Labor Attache; the third in the Turkish Information and
Tourism Bureau. A fourth explosive, intended for the Turkish
Permanent Representative to the O.E.C.D., is defused before it
explodes. The JCAG claims responsibility.
August 22, 1979 Geneva
A bomb is thrown at the car of the Turkish Consul General,
Niyazi Adal. The diplomat escapes unhurt. Two Swiss
passers-by are injured. Two cars are destroyed.
August 27, 1979 Frankfurt
The offices of THY are totally destroyed by an explosion. A
pedestrian is injured. The ASALA claims responsibility.
October 4, 1979 Copenhagen
Two Danes are injured when a bomb explodes near the offices
of THY. ASALA claims credit.
October 12, 1979 The Hague
Ahmet Benler, the son of Turkish Ambassador Özdemir Benler,
is assassinated by Armenian terrorists. The murderers escape.
JCAG and ASALA claim responsibility.
October 30, 1979 Milan
The offices of THY are destroyed by a bomb explosion. ASALA
November 8, 1979 Rome
The Turkish Tourism Office is destroyed by a bomb. ASALA
November 18, 1979 Paris
Bomb explosions destroy the offices of THY, KLM, and
Lufthansa. Two French policemen are injured. Responsibility is
claimed by ASALA.
November 25, 1979 Madrid
Bomb explosions in front of the offices of TWA and British
Airways. ASALA, in claiming responsibility, states that the
attacks are meant as a warning to the Pope to cancel his planned
visit to Turkey.
December 9, 1979 Rome
Two bombs explode in downtown Rome, damaging the offices of
PAN AM, British Airways and the Philippine Airways. Nine
people are injured in the terrorist attack. A "New Armenian
Resistance Movement" claims responsibility.
December 17, 1979 London
Extensive damage is caused when a bomb explodes in front of
the THY offices. A "Front for the Liberation of Armenia" claims
December 22, 1979 Paris
Ylmaz Çolpan, the Tourism Attache at the Turkish Embassy is
assassinated while walking on the Champs Elysées. Several
groups, including ASALA, JCAG and the "Commandos of
Armenian Militants Against Genocide" claim responsibility.
December 22, 1979 Amsterdam
Heavy damage results from a bomb explosion in front of the
THY offices. ASALA claims credit.
December 23, 1979 Rome
A bomb explodes in front of a World Council of Churches
Refugee Center, being used as a transit point for Armenian
refugees from Lebanon. ASALA claims credit for the attack and
warns the Italian authorities to halt "the Armenian diaspora."
December 23, 1979 Rome
Three bomb explosions occur in front of the offices of Air
France and TWA, injuring a dozen passers-by. ASALA claims
responsibility, stating that the bomb was placed "in reprisal
against the repressive measures of French authorities against
Armenians in France" (i.e., questioning suspects, carry out
January 10, 1980 Teheran
A bomb which explodes in front of the THY offices causes
extensive damage. ASALA claims responsibility.
January 20, 1980 Madrid
A series of bomb attacks, resulting in numerous injuries, occurs
in front of the offices of TWA, British Airways, Swissair, and
Sabena. The JCAG claims credit for the attacks.
February 2, 1980 Brussels
Two bombs explode within minutes of each other in front of the
downtown offices of THY and Aeroflot. The "New Armenian
Resistance Group" issues a communique in which they claim
responsibility for both attacks.
February 6, 1980 Bern
A terrorist opens fire on Turkish Ambassador Dogan Türkmen,
who escapes with minor wounds. The would-be-assassin, an
Armenian named Max Klindjian, is subsequently arrested in
Marseilles and returned to Switzerland for trial. The JCAG
claims credit for the attack.
February 18, 1980 Rome
The offices of Lufthansa, El Al and Swissair are damaged by
two bomb attacks. Telephone messages give three reasons for the
attacks: 1. The Germans support "Turkish fascism"; 2. The Jews
are Zionists (ASALA); 3. The Swiss behave "repressively"
towards the Armenians.
March 10, 1980 Rome
Bomb attacks on the THY and Turkish Tourism Bureau offices
on the Piazza Della Repubblica. The blasts kill two Italians and
injure fourteen. Credit for the attack is claimed by the "New
Armenian Resistance of the Armenian Secret Army."
April 17, 1980 Rome
The Turkish Ambassador to the Holy See, Vecdi Türel, is shot
and seriously wounded. His chauffeur, Tahsin Güvenç, is also
slightly wounded in the assassination attempt. JCAG claims
responsibility for the attack.
May 19, 1980 Marseilles
A rocket aimed at the Turkish Consulate General in Marseilles is
discovered and defused prior to exploding. ASALA and a group
calling itself "Black April" claim credit for the attack.
July 31, 1980 Athens
Galip Özmen, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish
Embassy, and his family are attacked by Armenian terrorists
while sitting in their car. Galip Özmen and his fourteen-year-old
daughter, Neslihan, are killed in the attack. His wife, Sevil, and
his sixteen-year-old son, Kaan, are wounded. Credit for the
double killing is claimed by ASALA.
August 5, 1980 Lyon
Two terrorists storm into the Turkish Consulate General in Lyon
and open fire, killing two and injuring several other bystanders.
ASALA claims credit for the attack.
August 11, 1980 New York
An "Armenian group" hurls paint bombs at the Turkish House
across from the United Nations, home of the Turkish
Representations in New York.
September 26, 1980 Paris
Selçuk Bakkalbas, the Press Counselor at the Turkish
Embassy, is shot as he enters his home. Bakkalbas survives but
is permanently paralyzed as a result of his injuries. ASALA
claims responsibility for the attack.
October 3, 1980 Geneva
Two Armenian terrorists are injured when a bomb they are
preparing explodes in their Geneva hotel room. The two, Suzy
Mahseredjian from Canoga Park, California, and Alexander
Yenikomechian, are arrested. Their arrest leads to the formation
of a new group called "October 3," which subsequently strikes at
October 3, 1980 Milan
Two Italians are injured when a bomb explodes in front of the
THY offices. ASALA claims credit for the attack.
October 5, 1980 Madrid
The offices of Alitalia are rocked by a bomb explosion which
injures twelve individuals. The ASALA claims responsibility
for the attack.
October 6, 1980 Los Angeles
Two molotov ****tails are thrown into the home of the Turkish
Consul General, Kemal Arkan. He survives with injuries.
October 10, 1980 Beirut
Two bombs explode near Swiss offices in West Beirut. A group
calling itself "October 3" claims responsibility for these
bombings as well as others on the same day against Swiss
offices in England.
October 12, 1980 New York
A bomb placed in front of the Turkish House explodes. Four
passers-by are injured. JCAG assumes responsibility.
October 12, 1980 Los Angeles
A travel agency in Hollywood, owned by a Turkish-American, is
destroyed. JCAG claims responsibility.
October 12, 1980 London
The Turkish Tourism and Information Bureau's offices are
damaged by a bomb explosion. ASALA claims credit.
October 12, 1980 London
A Swiss shopping complex in central London is damaged by a
bomb blast. Callers claim the explosion was the work of
October 13, 1980 Paris
A Swiss tourist office is damaged by a bomb explosion.
"October 3" again claims credit.
October 21, 1980 Interlaken, Switzerland
A bomb is found in a Swiss express train coming from Paris.
Luckily, it does not explode. "October 3" is believed to be
behind the action, which could have caused a catastrophe.
November 4, 1980 Geneva
The Swiss Palace of Justice in Geneva is heavily damaged by a
bomb explosion. Credit is claimed by "October 3."
November 9, 1980 Strasbourg
Heavy damage results from a bomb blast at the Turkish
Consulate General. The attack is claimed by ASALA.
November 10, 1980 Rome
Five people are injured in attacks on the Swissair and Swiss
Tourist offices. ASALA and "October 3" claim credit.
November 19, 1980 Rome
The offices of the Turkish Tourism Bureau and those of THY are
damaged by a bomb explosion. ASALA claims responsibility.
November 25, 1980 Geneva
The offices of the Union of Swiss Banks are hit by a bomb
explosion. Responsibility is claimed by "October 3."
December 5, 1980 Marseilles
A police expert defuses a time bomb left at the Swiss Consulate
in Marseilles. "October 3" claims responsibility.
December 15, 1980 London
Two bombs placed in front of the French Tourism Office in
London are defused by a Scotland Yard bomb squad. "October
3" claims the bombs are a warning to the French for assistance
they have rendered the Swiss in fighting Armenian terrorism.
December 17, 1980 Sydney
Two terrorists assassinate sark Aryak, the Turkish Consul
General, and his bodyguard, Engin Sever. JCAG claims
December 25, 1980 Zurich
A bomb explosion destroys a radar monitor at Kloten Airport,
and a second explosive planted on the main runway of the airport
is defused. "October 3" claims credit for these attempted
December 29, 1980 Madrid
A Spanish reporter is seriously injured in a telephone booth
while calling in a story to his paper about the bomb attack on the
Swissair offices. "October 3" claims responsibility.
December 30, 1980 Beirut
Bomb attack on the Credit-Suisse offices. ASALA and "October
3" fight over who gets the credit.
January 2, 1981 Beirut
In a press communique, ASALA threatens to "attack all Swiss
diplomats throughout the world" in response to the alleged
mistreatment of "Suzy and Alex" in Switzerland. On January 4,
ASALA issues a statement giving the Swiss a few days to think
January 14, 1981 Paris
A bomb explodes in the car of Ahmet Erbeyli, the Economic
Counselor of the Turkish Embassy. Erbeyli is not injured, but the
explosion totally destroys his car. A group calling itself the
"Alex Yenikomechian Commandos" of ASALA claims credit for
January 27, 1981 Milan
The Swissair and Swiss Tourist offices in Milan are damaged by
bomb explosions. Two passers-by are injured. "October 3"
claims credit for the bombing in a call to local media
February 3, 1981 Los Angeles
Bomb-squad officials disarm a bomb left at the Swiss Consulate.
The terrorists threaten in anonymous phone calls that such attacks
will continue until Suzy Mahseredjian is released.
February 5, 1981 Paris
Bombs explode in the TWA and Air France offices. One injured,
heavy material damage. "October 3" claims credit.
March 4, 1981 Paris
Two terrorists open fire on Resat Moral, Labor Attache at the
Turkish Embassy, Tecelli Ar, Religious Affairs Attache, and
Ilkay Karakoç, the Paris representative of the Anadolu Bank.
Moral and Ar are assassinated. Karakoç manages to escape.
ASALA claims responsibility.
March 12, 1981 Teheran
A group of ASALA terrorists try to occupy the Turkish Embassy,
killing two guards in the process. Two of the perpetrators are
captured and later executed by the Iranians. ASALA claims
April 3, 1981 Copenhagen
Cavit Demir, the Labor Attache at the Turkish Embassy, is shot
as he enters his apartment building late in the evening and is
seriously wounded. Both ASALA and JCAG claim the attack.
June 3, 1981 Los Angeles
Bombs force the cancellation of performances by a Turkish
folk-dance group. Threats of similar bombings force the group's
performances in San Francisco to be canceled as well.
June 9, 1981 Geneva
Mehmet Savas Yergüz, Secretary in the Turkish Consulate, is
assassinated by the Armenian terrorist Mardiros Jamgotchian.
The arrest of the ASALA terrorist leads to the formation of a
new ASALA branch called the "Ninth of June Organization,"
which will be responsible for a new series of attacks.
June 11, 1981 Paris
A group of Armenian terrorists, led by one Ara Toranian,
occupies the THY offices. Initially ignored by the French
authorities, the terrorists are only evicted from the premises after
vehement protests from the Turkish Embassy.
June 19, 1981 Teheran
A bomb explodes at the offices of Swissair. The "Ninth of June
Organization" claims responsibility.
June 26, 1981 Los Angeles
A bomb explodes in front of the Swiss Banking Corporation
offices. Again the work of the "Ninth of June Organization."
July 19, 1981 Bern
A bomb explodes at the Swiss Parliament Building. "Ninth of
June" claims responsibility.
July 20, 1981 Zurich
"Ninth of June" strikes again. A bomb explodes in an automatic
photo-booth at Zurich's international airport.
July 21, 1981 Lausanne
Twenty women are injured as a bomb laid by Armenian
terrorists explodes in a department store. "Ninth of June" claims
July 22, 1981 Geneva
A bomb explodes in a locker at the train station. Authorities
suspect "Ninth of June."
July 22, 1981 Geneva
An hour later, a second bomb explodes in a locker at the station.
Police cordoned off the area following the first explosion,
thereby preventing injuries from the second.
August 11, 1981 Copenhagen
Two bombs destroy the offices of Swissair. An American tourist
is injured in the explosion. "Ninth of June" claims
August 20, 1981 Los Angeles
A bomb explodes outside the offices of Swiss Precision
Instruments. The attack is claimed by "Ninth of June."
August 20, 1981 Paris
Explosion at Alitalia Airlines. "October 3" is back in action.
September 15, 1981 Copenhagen
Two people are injured as a bomb explodes in front of the THY
offices. Police experts manage to defuse a second bomb. Credit
is claimed by a "Sixth Armenian Liberation Army."
September 17, 1981 Teheran
A bomb explosion damages a Swiss Embassy building.
ASALA's "Ninth of June" claims responsibility.
September 24, 1981 Paris
Four Armenian terrorists occupy the Turkish Consulate General.
During their entry into the building, the Consul, Kaya Inal, and a
security guard, Cemal Özen, are seriously wounded. Terrorists
take 56 hostages. Özen dies of his injuries in the hospital. The
terrorists are ASALA members.
October 3, 1981 Geneva
The main post office and the city courthouse are hit by bomb
explosions. An ASALA member is scheduled to go on trial for
murder in the courthouse. "Ninth of June" claims credit for the
attacks, which leave one person injured.
October 25, 1981 Rome
An Armenian terrorist fires at Gökberk Ergenekon, Second
Secretary at the Turkish Embassy. Ergenekon is wounded in the
arm. ASALA claims credit in the name of the "September 24
October 25, 1981 Paris
Fouquet's, the fashionable French restaurant, is the target of a
bomb attack. A group calling itself "September-France" claims
October 26, 1981 Paris
The same group is behind the explosion of a booby-trapped
automobile in front of "Le Drugstore."
October 27, 1981 Paris
"September-France" carries out a bomb attack at Roissy
October 27, 1981 Paris
A second bomb explodes near a busy escalator at Roissy
Airport. No one is injured. "September-France" claims
October 28, 1981 Paris
The same group is responsible for a bomb attack in a movie
theater. Three people are injured.
November 3, 1981 Madrid
A bomb explodes in front of the Swissair offices, injuring three
persons. Considerable damage to nearby buildings. ASALA
November 5, 1981 Paris
A bomb explodes in the Gare de Lyon, injuring one person. The
attack is claimed by the Armenian "Orly Organization."
November 12, 1981 Beirut
Simultaneous bomb explosions occur in front of three French
offices: the French Cultural Center, the Air France offices and
the home of the French Consul General. The "Orly Organization"
claims responsibility. This organization owes its name to the fact
that the French police arrested an Armenian at Orly Airport in
Paris because of forged papers. The idea now is to "bomb him
November 14, 1981 Paris
A bomb explosion damages an automobile near the Eiffel Tower.
"Orly" claims responsibility.
November 14, 1981 Paris
"Orly" launches a grenade attack on a group of tourists
disembarking from a sightseeing boat on the River Seine.
November 15, 1981 Paris
"Orly" threatens to blow up an Air France airplane in flight.
November 15, 1981 Beirut
Simultaneous bomb attacks are carried out against three French
targets: the "Union des Assurances de Paris", the Air France
offices and the "Banque Libano-Française". "Orly" is
November 15, 1981 Paris
A McDonald's restaurant is destroyed by "September-France."
November 16, 1981 Paris
A bomb injures two innocent bystanders at the Gare de l'Est.
"Orly" claims responsibility.
November 18, 1981 Paris
"Orly" announces that it has planted a bomb at the Gare du Nord.
November 20, 1981 Los Angeles
The Turkish Consulate General in Beverly Hills suffers
extensive damage. The JCAG claims credit.
January 13, 1982 Toronto
An ASALA bomb causes extensive damage to the Turkish
January 17, 1982 Geneva
Two bombs destroy parked cars. The ASALA "Ninth of June
Organization" claims credit.
January 17, 1982 Paris
A bomb explodes at the Union of Banks and a second is
disarmed at the Credit Lyonnais. "Orly" claims responsibility.
January 19, 1982 Paris
A bomb explodes in the Air France offices in the Palais des
Congres. "Orly" claims responsibility.
January 28, 1982 Los Angeles
Kemal Arkan, the Turkish Consul General in Los Angeles, is
assassinated by two terrorists while driving to work. Nineteen
year old Hampig Sassounian is arrested and sentenced to life.
March 22, 1982 Cambridge, Massachusetts
A gift shop belonging to Orhan Gündüz, the Turkish Honorary
Consul General in Boston, is blown up. Gündüz receives an
ultimatum: Either he gives up his honorary position or he will be
"executed." Responsibility is claimed by the JCAG.
March 26, 1982 Beirut
Two dead, sixteen injured in an explosion at a movie theater.
ASALA claims credit for the attack.
April 8, 1982 Ottawa
Kani Güngör, the Commercial Attache at the Turkish Embassy in
Ottawa, is seriously wounded in an attack by Armenian terrorists
in the garage of his apartment house. ASALA claims
April 24, 1982 Dortmund, West Germany
Several Turkish-owned businesses suffer extensive damage in
bomb attacks. The "New Armenian Resistance Organization"
May 4, 1982 Cambridge, Massachusetts
Orhan Gündüz, the Turkish Honorary Consul General in Boston
is assassinated. The murderer is still at large.
May 10, 1982 Geneva
Bombs explode at two banks. The attacks are claimed by an
Armenian "World Punishment Organization."
May 18, 1982 Toronto
Four Armenians are arrested for trying to smuggle money out of
the country. The money was extorted from Armenians, a common
practice throughout the world. In the course of the investigation,
it is discovered that the terrorists fire-bombed the house of an
Armenian who refused to make his contribution to Armenian
May 18, 1982 Tampa, Florida
Attack at the office of Nash Karahan, the Turkish Honorary
May 26, 1982 Los Angeles
A bomb damages the office of Swiss Banking Corporation. The
suspects: four Armenians accused of involvement in ASALA.
May 30, 1982 Los Angeles
Three members of ASALA are arrested when planting a bomb in
the Air Canada cargo-office.
June 7, 1982 Lisbon
The Administrative Attache at the Turkish Embassy, Erkut
Akbay, and his wife, Nadide Akbay, are assassinated in front of
their home. JCAG claims responsibility.
July 1, 1982 Rotterdam
Kemalettin Demirer, the Turkish Consul General in Rotterdam, is
shot down by four Armenian terrorists. An "Armenian Red
Army" claims responsibility.
July 21, 1982 Paris
Sixteen injured in a bomb explosion near a cafe in the Place
Saint-Severin. Credit is claimed by the Orly Organization.
"Orly" complains that the French do not treat the arrested
Armenian terrorists as "political prisoners," but rather as
July 26, 1982 Paris
"Orly" is responsible for injuring two women in an explosion in
Paris' "Pub Saint-Germain."
August 2, 1982 Paris
Pierre Gulumian, an Armenian terrorist, is killed when a bomb
he is making explodes in his face.
August 7, 1982 Ankara, Esenboga Airport
Two Armenian terrorists open fire in a crowded passenger
waiting room. One of the terrorists takes more than twenty
hostages while the second is apprehended by the police. Nine
people are dead and eighty-two injured&emdash;some seriously.
The surviving terrorist, Levon Ekmekjian is arrested and
August 8, 1982 Paris
A bomb is defused in time. "Orly" regrets the discovery.
August 12, 1982 Paris
Terrorists open fire on a policeman assigned to protect the
offices of the Turkish Tourism Attache. Luckily, he escapes
August 27, 1982 Ottawa
Colonel Atilla Altkat, the Military Attache at the Turkish
Embassy, is assassinated in his car. JCAG claims responsibility.
September 9, 1982 Burgaz, Bulgaria
Bora Süelkan, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish
Consulate General in Burgaz, is assassinated in front of his
home. The assassin leaves a message "We shot dead the Turkish
diplomat: Combat Units of Justice Against the Armenian
Genocide." An anonymous caller claims that the assassination is
the work of a branch of the ASALA.
October 26, 1982 Los Angeles
Five Armenian terrorists are charged with conspiring to blow up
the offices of the Honorary Turkish Consul General in
Philadelphia. All belong to the JCAG.
December 8, 1982 Athens
Two Armenians on a motorbike throw a bomb at the offices of
the Saudi Arabian Airlines. The bomb hits a power pylon,
explodes and kills one of the terrorists. His accomplice, an
Armenian from Iran named Vahe Kontaverdian is arrested. It is
later revealed that ASALA ordered the attack because Saudi
Arabia maintains friendly relations with Turkey.
January 21, 1983 Anaheim, California
Nine "sophisticated" pipe bombs are confiscated from an
Armenian bakery after one of the detonators goes off and causes
Posted 08 August 2000 - 11:08 PM
Two terrorists attack the offices of THY with hand grenades. No
one is injured. ASALA claims credit.
January 22, 1983 Paris
French police defuse a powerful explosive device near the THY
counter at Orly airport.
February 2, 1983 Brussels
The offices of THY are bombed. The "New Armenian
Resistance Organization" claims responsibility.
February 28, 1983 Luxembourg
A bomb placed in front of Turkey's diplomatic mission is
defused. The Armenian Reporter in New York reports that the
"New Armenian Resistance Organization" is responsible.
February 28, 1983 Paris
A bomb explodes at the Marmara Travel Agency. Killed in the
explosion is Renée Morin, a French secretary. Four other
Frenchmen are wounded. A few minutes after the attack, ASALA
March 9, 1983 Belgrade
Galip Balkar, the Turkish Ambassador to Yugoslavia is
assassinated in central Belgrade. His chauffeur, Necati Kayar is
shot in the stomach. As the two assailants flee from the scene,
they are bravely pursued by Yugoslav citizens. One of the
terrorists shoots and wounds a Yugoslav Colonel, and is in turn
apprehended by a policeman. The second terrorist opens fire on
civilians who are chasing him, killing a young student and
wounding a young girl. The two terrorists, Kirkor Levonian and
Raffi Elbekian, are tried and sentenced.
March 31, 1983 Frankfurt
An anonymous caller threatened to bomb the offices and kill the
staff of Tercüman newspaper, a Turkish daily.
May 24, 1983 Brussels
Bombs explode in front of the Turkish Embassy's Culture and
Information offices and in front of a Turkish-owned travel
agency. The Italian director of the travel agency is wounded.
ASALA claims credit.
June 16, 1983 Istanbul
Armenian terrorists carry out an attack with hand grenades and
automatic weapons inside the covered bazaar in Istanbul. Two
dead, twenty-one wounded. ASALA claims responsibility.
July 8, 1983 Paris
Armenian terrorists attack the offices of the British Council,
protesting against the trials of Armenians in London.
July 14, 1983 Brussels
Armenian terrorists murder Dursun Aksoy, the Administrative
Attache at the Turkish Embassy. ASALA, ARA and JCAG claim
July 15, 1983 Paris
A bomb explodes in front of the THY counter at Orly airport.
Eight dead, more than sixty injured. A 29 years old
Syrian-Armenian named Varadjian Garbidjian confesses to
having planted the bomb. He admits that the bomb was intended
to have exploded once the plane was airborne.
July 15, 1983 London
A bomb, similar to the one that exploded at Orly, is defused in
time. ASALA claims responsibility for both attacks.
July 18, 1983 Lyon
A bomb threat is made by ASALA against the Lyon railroad
July 20, 1983 Lyon
Panicky evacuation of Lyon's Gare de Perrache following a
bomb threat from ASALA.
July 22, 1983 Teheran
"Orly" carries out bomb attacks on the French Embassy and Air
July 27, 1983 Lisbon
Five Armenian terrorists attempt to storm the Turkish Embassy in
Lisbon. Failing to gain access to the chancery, they occupy the
residence, taking the Deputy Chief of Mission(DCM) and his
family hostage. When explosives being planted by the terrorists
go off, Cahide Mhçoglu, wife of the DCM and four of the
terrorists are blown to pieces. The DCM, Yurtsev Mhçoglu,
and his son Atasay are injured. The fifth terrorist is killed in the
initial assault by Turkish security forces. One Portuguese
policeman is also killed and another wounded. The ARA claims
July 28, 1983 Lyon
Another bomb threat on Lyon-Perrache railroad station. ASALA
July 29, 1983 Teheran
A threat to blow up the French Embassy in Teheran with a rocket
attack causes Iranian officials to increase security at the facility.
July 31, 1983 Lyon and Rennes
Bomb threats from Armenian terrorists force the emergency
landing of two domestic French flights carrying 424 passengers.
August 10, 1983 Teheran
A bomb explodes in an automobile at the French Embassy.
ASALA claims credit for the attack.
August 25, 1983 Bonn
A whole series of bomb attacks against offices of the French
Consulate General claim two lives and leave twenty-three
injured. ASALA claims responsibility.
September 9, 1983 Teheran
Two French Embassy cars are bombed. One of the bombs injures
two embassy staff members. ASALA claims credit.
October 1, 1983 Marseilles
A bomb blast destroys the U.S., Soviet and Algerian pavilions at
an international trade fair in Marseilles. One person is killed and
twenty-six injured. ASALA and "Orly" claim credit.
October 6, 1983 Teheran
A French Embassy vehicle is bombed, injuring two passengers.
"Orly" claims responsibility.
October 29, 1983 Beirut
Hand-grenade attack on the French Embassy. One of the ASALA
terrorists is arrested.
October 29, 1983 Beirut
The Turkish Embassy is attacked by three Armenian terrorists.
One of the assailants, Sarkis Denielian, a 19 years old
Lebanese-Armenian is apprehended. ASALA claims
February 8, 1984 Paris
Bomb threat on an Air France flight to New York.
March 28, 1984 Teheran
A timed series of attacks is carried out against Turkish
Two Armenian terrorists shoot and seriously wound Sergeant
Ismail Pamukçu, employed at the office of the Turkish Military
Hasan Servet Öktem, First Secretary of the Turkish Embassy, is
slightly wounded as he leaves his home;
Ibrahim Özdemir, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish
Embassy, alerts police to two suspicious looking men. They turn
out to be Armenian terrorists and are arrested;
In the afternoon of the same day, Iranian police arrest three more
Armenian terrorists outside the Turkish Embassy;
An Armenian terrorist is killed when a bomb he is attempting to
plant in the car of the Turkish Assistant Commercial Counselor
explodes prematurely. The dead terrorist is later identified as
Sultan Gregorian Semaperdan (ASALA).
March 29, 1984 Los Angeles
ASALA sends a written threat, saying they will assassinate
Turkish athletes who take part in the Olympics.
April 8, 1984 Beirut
ASALA issues a communique warning that all flights to Turkey
will be considered military targets.
April 26, 1984 Ankara
The Turkish Prime Minister, Turgut Özal, receives a threat
warning him that if he goes ahead with a planned visit to
Teheran, ASALA will schedule a major terrorist operation
against his country.
April 28, 1984 Teheran
Two Armenian terrorists riding a motorcycle open fire on Isk
Yönder as he drives his wife, Sadiye Yönder, to the Turkish
Embassy where she works. Isk Yönder is killed, and ASALA
claims credit for yet another senseless murder.
June 20, 1984 Vienna
A bomb explodes in a car belonging to Erdogan Özen, Assistant
Labor and Social Affairs Counselor at the Turkish Embassy in
Vienna. Özen is killed and five others seriously wounded,
including a policeman. ARA terrorists claim credit for the
June 25, 1984 Los Angeles
A news agency office in France receives a letter threatening to
attack all governments, organizations and companies which
assist, in any way whatsoever, Turkey's team at the Los Angeles
August 13, 1984 Lyon
A bomb explodes in a Lyon train station causing minor damage.
ASALA claims credit.
September 1984 Teheran
Several Turkish owned firms in Iran come under attack after
receiving warning letters informing them that they are to be
targeted. The first victim is the Sezai Türkes Company. A
Turkish employee is injured while fighting the fire caused by the
explosion. A chain of smaller scale acts of intimidation follows.
September 1, 1984 Teheran
Iranian authorities expose a plot to assassinate Ismet Birsel, the
Turkish Ambassador to Teheran.
September 3, 1984 Istanbul
Two Armenian terrorists die as one of their bombs goes off too
soon. The ARA claims credit.
November 19, 1984 Vienna
Evner Ergun, Deputy Director of the Centre for Social
Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations,
Vienna is assassinated while driving to work. The assassins
leave a flag with the initials "ARA" on his body.
December 1984 Brussels
Authorities are able to thwart a bombing attempt at the residence
of Selçuk Incesu, Turkish Consul General.
December 29, 1984 Beirut
Two French buildings in East Beirut are bombed. ASALA
December 29, 1984 Paris
Following an ASALA threat to blow up an Air France plane,
police increase security at the Charles de Gaulle Airport.
January 3, 1985 Beirut
The offices of Agence France Presse are extensively damaged
when a bomb explodes.
March 3, 1985 Paris
An anonymous caller to Agence France Presse threatens to attack
French interests throughout the world upon the indictment of the
three terrorists who participated in the Orly attack.
March 12, 1985 Ottawa
Three heavily armed terrorists storm the Turkish Embassy,
killing a Canadian security guard in the process. After blowing
up the front door, the gunmen enter the building. Ambassador
Coskun Krca manages to escape but suffers extensive injuries.
The wife and daughter of the Ambassador, who were taken
hostage, are later released, and the terrorists surrender. ARA
March 26, 1985 Toronto
A threat to blow up the city of Toronto's transit system leads to
chaos during the rush hour. An "Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Our Homeland" claims responsibility for the
November 1985 Brussels
A special anti-terrorist security squad of the Belgian police
exposes and arrests three Armenian terrorists with Portuguese
passports. They were planning an attack on Turkish officers at
November 28, 1985 Paris
French police arrest the leader of the terrorist
organization&emdash;the "Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Armenia-Revolutionary Movement"
(ASALA-RM)&emdash;Mr. Monte Melkonian, a U.S. citizen. In
Melkonian's apartment, police confiscate weapons, explosive
devices, arrival and departure information on Turkish ships
scheduled to visit France and a picture of Turkey's Ambassador
to France, Adnan Bulak.
December 1985 Paris
Forty-one shoppers in two of Paris' leading department stores
(Gallerie Lafayette and Printemps) are injured (twelve
seriously) when nearly simultaneous bomb explosions rip
through the stores. In the ensuing panic, some 10,000 Christmas
shoppers flee into the street. The Armenian Reporter, published
in New York, reports in its December 12th issue that French law
enforcement authorities are concentrating on ASALA as the most
likely perpetrator. ASALA later takes credit for the two
November 23, 1986 Melbourne
At 2:15 a.m. a bomb explodes in front of the Turkish Consulate
General. One dead -presumedly the perpetrator- and one
At 2:15 a.m. a bomb explodes in front of the Turkish Consulate
General. One dead -presumedly the perpetrator- and one
Posted 08 August 2000 - 12:02 PM
...series. Edward portrays Gourgen Yanikian in I Would Rather Die. It...
...California. Their assassin was Gourgen Yanikian, a 77-year-old... http://www.conubic.c...eq-ew/bhl8.html
Bullet Highlights: Woodward off the Cuff
...didn't read anything about Gourgen Yanikian, except for the...
...story of Armenian/American Gourgen Yanikian, who murdered two... http://www.conubic.c...eq-ew/bhl9.html
Posted 08 August 2000 - 02:38 PM
Iys inch vor kardalu es im andznakan Kartsikn en yev im prptumneri ardzyunk@
6 amis araj mi bavakanin xoshorakazm / tarets / mi hajaxord ners mtav indz mot mi kano pokrik nverneri karikuner tornikneri hamar , nverner@ @entreluts heto yerb arten vcharum er harstrets te vor terits em , asetsy Hayastanits / tserunu demkin j@pit yekav yev asets/ bavaknin hin yev mets Hambavov Azg ek dzer masin shat em kardatsel yev grel ,
yerb asets vor grel e asetsy te inch kapaktsutyamb ?
patasxanets vro tariner arach ashxatum er Santa Barbara Star news terti hamar vorpes jurnalist, yev tarineri @entatskum bazmativ hodvatsner e grel Santa Barbarayi shrjanum bnakvor Hayeri masin.
Yev kani vor ink@ masnagitatsvats e yerel HAyeri yev HAykakan Harsteri shurj 1973 tvakanin Petrvar amsin iren Arajarkel en Hartsazruyts katarel Santa Barbarayi metsaharust yev arten mets janachum unetsor mi Hye tseruki vor@ verchin 2 shabtneri @entatskum arten isk amborj ashxarhn er janachum ir katarats zohoutyan hamar.
Andznavorutyun@ vori het hartsazruyts er unenalu Santa barbara qaraqi jahachvats Hilton Hoteli tnoren / Solveng Qaraqi 40% relsteyti tnoren Gourgen Yanikian er, tseruni vor@ ir kyanki verchin tarinerum voroshel er ir vrej@ lutsel , lutsel ir vrej@ minchev charabastik qartsger@ ( canser ) verch k@dner ir kyankin. yev voroshel er Mahanal iyn Garapari Hamar Vor@ Paypayel er tariner sharunak.
>> Paron Gurge@ hartszruytsi @endatskum patmel er te inchn e yerel patjar@ vor ink@ katarel e sa/ haytnel vor Yes Giteyi vor Anhat@s Menak chi mna / yete n@ra gorts@ j@shmarit E !!!
manramasnutyuner@ tseruni jurnalist 2cher hishum arten sakayn patmets te inchpes e Karoratsel Paron Gurge@ turk pashtonyanerin hravirel yev katarel iys katarvats@ . arain na kapnvel e Turkakan despanatan het SF haytnel te ir mot e gtvum turkakan mets arvesty gorts vor@ nerkayatsnum e irenits mets arjek / vor ink @tsankanum e handznel iyn turkyain vorpes nver yev vorpes yerbayrakan haraberutyuneri skizb. despan@ hamadziynel e handipelu yev stanalu " nver@ " Yev iyspes Hunvar 27 1973 tvakan 2 turk divanaget@ Pahtar Temir & Mahmed Paytan jamanum en Santa Barbarayi / Montesito qaraqi Baltemor Hoteli pandokum handipetsin Gourgen Yanikian xostatsvats nver@ stanalu hamar.Gourgen Yanikian bavakanin hangist tertum er ir dzeri gork @ yev hnagstutyamb grki porvats edjerist hanelov atrjanak@ 2 pampusht krakum e arajinin / despani ognakan @ portsum e paxnel 2 pampusht el krakum e n@ra vra yev tapalum n@ran." Yes inks eyi porel girk@ yev hatuk z@spanak teradrel iynter vor matneris tetevsharjumits atrjanaka durs ga / bolor im pampushtner ogtveluts heto harevan serani vra pahvats #2 Brauning atrjanak@ vertsnelov motetsa hatakin parkats turkin yev mi gndak kraketsy urisr gangin aselov -SA IN yERBOR HAMAR -iyd jamanak mi tsasum zagty yev kartses te pati vra yerbors n@kar@ tesa aryunot kokord@ ktrvats sakayn j@pit@ demkin kartses asum er - SHNORHAKAL EM GURGEN JAN - mi pampusht el turk despani gangin tvetsy aselov - SA EL QEZ MER HYE AZGI GORMITS VOR 1.5MILYON HAYER MINCHEV IYSOR TAPVATS EN AMENUREK " Gourgen Yanikian'i xosker@ datavarutyan jamanak.
yev iyspe s sksvets mi nor janaparh paykari yev vrej lustelu mi nor arit Hay azgi zavakneri hamar.
Shajum vori karik @ shat shutvanist kar .
" Tariner araj vorpes Kamavor ( fedayi ) yerel em yes Haykakan azatagrakan sharjman masnakits / tsavok srty tesel em iyn amen @inch iysor genotsid e kochvum . tesel em mer Haykakan Geter@ aryunov ltsvats yev diyakner antiv anhamar, yev mer harazatneri anshunch diyakner@, katsnahar yerats Hyi balikner@, aryunakam yerats mer Mayrerin yev mer quyrerin brnabarvats, yev ur er MArdkutyun@? mardkutyan koch@ ? ardarutyun @ yev astvats ? ur eyin iys Mardaser azger@ yerb mez Hayeris het varvum eyin iyspes ? "
" Inch inch patjarnerov n@rank ov vertsrel er irents vra HAykakan genotsidi yev Haykakan HArtsi patasxanatvutyun@ het eyin mnum tariner sharunak . Het eyin mnujm kanzi kayin andznakan hartser yev chkayin anhrajesht $$ yev arten isk Haykakan Hartsy vra tsaxkepssak eyin dnum vorpesi gerezman ijetsnen yev moranan arten , tsatskel iyn moratsutyan qori tak, isk yes cheyi karor moranal iyn , mi korm qashelov varaquyr @ iys yev mejter berelov ardarutyan vogin jaytqets im mej krak vor@ iyrets demker@ tarum katarorneri yev dzerker@ iyd dajan "
" yes gitem vor ANHATS MENAK mnalu che yev k@gtnven 1000 Hayer iys nuyn zgatsmunkov yev vreji patasxanatvutyamb.
" martik k@linen vor mi korm k@tornen andznakan @yev papuk atorner@ yve korq korqi k@gan azgi shaheri hamar . Ohnutyan hambyur em shnorhum IYS BANAKI bolor andznurats Zinvornerin n@ants hogu luys@ k@lusavori mer azgi apagan,menk mi tshnami unenk iysor da turkyan e > yev mek n@patak yet stanal mer papakan horrer@. mer papenakan Hayastan@,Ka ashxarhis vra tekuz mek HYE vori yerakneuk HAyi NAyiryan Aryun chi hosum ? vor@ chi hargi ASALAYI ashxatank@? chka , huysov em chi el lini kani vor menk mer kyankov enk vcharelu iys garapari hamar, mez hamar,
patmutyun@ misht apatsutsum e vor xosker@ qamin e tanum , xostumner@ moratsvum en , ardarutyun @yev azatutyun @kortsnum en irents imast@, yete n@rank chen pashtpanvum amur bruntski kormits ,Martkutyan patmutyan mej chka iysnpisi mi depk yerb mi azg veradarstni vertsvat s horer@ voske pnaki mej UJN e teladrum martkants gortser@ yev azgeri apagan yev mez hamar tekuz yev poker ASALA banak@ klini iyn vorkanov vor karor e minchev verch yev iys bruntsk @ tsnki k@beri mer vosoxin mer tshnamun .mot e iyd jam@ mot e iyd Hushavchari jam@ mot e Azat ankax Hayastan@ " Gourgen Yanikian
Chino CA 10-2-1984 ir bantaxtsikum mahatsav Hay azgi metsins zavak / Gourgen Yanikian / arachin artsiv@ Hayastani azatagrman Hye GAxtni Banaki / Tor Astavts Hokin Lusavori Iys Tseruni Fedayi vor@ ir kyanki verhcin qarster tariner Azgi yev vreji hamar antskatsrets BANTUM .
>> sharunakem kich ants hajaxord ka mots >
[This message has been edited by JanFedayi (edited August 08, 2000).]
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