And the Fraud Had a Name
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:37 AM
Full: Ahmad ibn Yahya Baladhuri
احمدبن يحيي بلاذري
Work: Futuh al Buldan (Conquests of Lands)
The Iranian historian Baladhuri (died 279 Hijri) considers Aran (Aghvank) part of Armenia. He clarifies the fact of a considerable Armenian presence in Aran (Aghvank) as follows: “An inhabitant of Bardha (Partaw, Պարտաւ), Muhammad ibn Ismail and others, Abu Bara Anbassat ibn Bahr Armani also Muhammad ibn Bashar Qali from their notables and Barmak ibn Abdullah Dabili (of Dvin) and Muhammad ibn Mkhis Khlati and a number of others recounted about persons knowledgeable in affaires of the Armenians and I relate their words in a correct manner, matching them against one another and completing them. It’s been known that Shmshat and Qaliqla (Cilicia) and Arjis (Arjesh, Արճեշ) and Bajonis are parts of fourth Armenia and the Khora of Bosforjan (Vaspurakan) and Dabil (Dvin) and Seraj and Baghrevand (Bagrevand) is called third Armenia and Jorzan (Georgia) second Armenia and Sisjan (Sisakan) and Aran (Aghvank) and Tiflis (Tbilisi) are first Armenia… Jorzan and Aran fell under the Khazars and the rest came under Roman occupation.”
That Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and Aghvank were two completely separate entities throughout history is also reflected in the religious developments in both regions. Baladhuri tells us that the people of Azarbaijan (the real) were already Muslims short after the Arab invasions: “When Ali ibn abu Taleb became caliph, he appointed Saad ibn Saria Khazaii later Ash’ath ibn Qeis as rulers of Azarbaijan (the real H.) …When Ash’ath arrived in Azarbaijan (the real H.), he saw that most of the people had converted to Islam and read the Qur’an” while it is known that the acceptance of Islam did not go so smoothly in Aghvank. The Aghvans assimilated mainly with Armenians in the following centuries.
When in December 2005 the genocidal “Azeris” were barbarically destroying the centuries old stone-crosses of the ancient Jugha cemetery in Nakhijevan, in response to the pleadings of the head of the Armenian church Garegin II to stop the savagery, the religious leader of fake “Azerbaijan” Allahshokur Pashazadeh shamelessly retorted: “do not worry, these are the monuments of our Albanian (Aghvan H.) “ancestors”.” That Nakhijevan could never have been a part of faraway Aghvank is obvious however, it is noteworthy to quote a part of Baladhuri’s narration of the first Arab incursion into Aghvank: “the invaders reached Aran (Aghvank H.) from the south and crossing through Nakhijevan”. ●
Dinwari (Dinawari) (828-894 AD)
Full: Abu Hanifa Ahmad ibn Dawood Dinwari
ابو جنيفه احمدبن داود دينوري
Work: Akhbar ut Tawal
The renowned third century Hijri Iranian historian, scientist and literary figure, author of at least twenty one works in different fields, Dinwari (died around 281 Hijri) has also recorded information about geographic features of Armenia, Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and Aghvank through his account of Babak Khorramdin’s history. Aghvank is considered part of Armenia according to this historical narration.
He relates the administrative changes of the Iranian Sassanid Empire in the time of Anushirvan (Khosro, Khusrau I) as follows: “Anushirvan divided the Iranian kingdom into four major iqlims (realms, koosts) and appointed a trustee as the ruler for each. One of these iqlims was consisted of Khorasan, Sistan and Kerman; the other Isfahan, Ghom (Qom), the lands of Jebal (Medes), Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and Armenia; the third Fars, Ahvaz and until Bahrain and the fourth iqlim included Iraq until the borders with the Romans.”
Dinwari confirms that the River Kur is the southernmost part of Aghvank and the Arax River separates Armenia from Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan). ●
Ya’qubi (?-897 AD)
Full: Ibn Wadih Ahmad ibn abu Ya’qub Ishaq ibn Jafar Isfahani
ابن واضح احمدبن ابي يعقوب اسحاق بن جغفر اصفهاني
Works: Tarikh Ya’qubi (Ya’qubi History), Al Buldan (Countries)
Ibn Wadih Ahmad ibn abu Ya’qub Ishaq ibn Jafar Isfahani (died 284 Hijri) is a well known Islamic historian and geographer. He was a descendant of Wadih, the Abbasid caliph Mansour’s appointed governor of Armenia and Azarbaijan (the real). Ya’qubi lived in Armenia for some years and served some of its governors.
In his Tarikh (History), Ya’qubi considers Aran (Aghvank) a province in Armenia and says it was known as the third Armenia that was conquered by the Iranian king Ghobad (Sassanid king Kavad, Kaveh). He writes: “The third part (Armenia) includes Bardha (Partaw) a city in the province of Aran (Aghvank), Beylakan (Pytakaran) and Bab ul Abwab (Darband, Chor)”
In his geographic work Al Buldan (Countries) he names places and cities in three parts of Armenia, first: Dabil (Dvin), Qaliqla (Cilicia), Khlat, Shimshad, Savad; second: Bardha (Partaw, Պարտաւ), Beylakan (Pytakaran, Փայտակարան), Qabalah (Kabalak, Կապաղակ), Darband; third: Khazran (Jorzan, Georgia), Tiflis (Tbilisi), etc. As cities of Azarbaijan he cites: Ardebil, Varthan, Shiz, Marand, Tabriz, Mianeh, Urmia, Khoy, Salmas, etc.
In Al Buldan, Ya’qubi calls the language of the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) Pahlavi Azari and considers the people of that region of Iranian origin.
It’s noteworthy to mention the events of 238 Hijri (852 AD) in his History where the Turkish Buqa khan was sent by Al-Mutawakkil (847-861) to suppress the uprising of Armenians: “Buqa killed many Armenians and their leaders (why am I not surprised? H.)”, eventually Buqa was defeated by the rebels and the caliph appointed Muhammad ibn Khalid ibn Yazid ibn Mazid Sheibani as the ruler of Armenia. The rebels ended the uprising and Muhammad pardoned them. ●
Ibn Khordadbeh (c. 820-912/913 AD)
Full: Abulqassem Ubeidullah ibn Abdullah ibn Khordadbeh
ابوالقاسم عبيدالله بن عبدالله بن خردادبه
Work: Al Masalek wal Mamalek (Roads and Countries)
المسالك و الممالك
Ibn Khordadbeh (died 300 Hijri) was the director of communication and information of western parts of Iran in the time of the Abbasid caliph Al Wathiq (842-847 AD). He is the author of a geographic work about the roads and countries. The roads of Armenia, Georgia, Aghvank up to areas around the Caspian are described in his work.
He says Armenia consists of four parts. He considers Aran (Aghvank) part of first Armenia (Armenia Maior). He writes: “The First Armenia includes Sisjan (Sisakan, Սիսական) and Aran (Aghvank) and Tiflis (Tbilisi) and Bardha (Partaw, Պարտաւ) and Beylakan (Pytakaran, Փայտակարան) and Qabalah (Kabalak, Կապաղակ) and Shirvan.
Ibn Khordadbeh gives separate accounts of cities in Azarbayegan (Azarbaijan, Atrpatakan) and Aran. He places cities and villages in Azarbaijan to the South of the Arax, north of Zanjan and Hamadan and describes Aran and Georgia with cities Tiflis (Tbilisi), Bardhae (Partaw), Beylakan (Pytakaran), Qabalah (Kabalak), Shirvan, etc. and mentions that they were conquered by Iranian king Anushirvan from Khazar rule.
Confirming yet again that a “great Azerbaijan” two sides of the Arax River is nothing but fairytale and a 20th century historic falsification, he lists the rulers of lands within Iran and outside its boundaries who obeyed the central Iranian government keeping some kind of independence: Great Kushan shah, Great Armanestan shah (Armenia), Borjan shah (Georgian), Gilan shah… Aturpatekan shah (Azarbaijan the real), Kerman shah, Alan shah (Alans = Ossetians), Turan shah… Kashmiran shah, Reyhan shah (in India), Aran shah (Aghvank), Shirvan shah, etc., etc., etc. ●
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:39 AM
Full: Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir ibn Yazid ibn Khaled Amoli Tabari
ابوجعفر محمدبن جريربن يزيدبن خالد آملي طبري
Perhaps the greatest Islamic historian of all times, the author of the monumental multi-volume work “History”, admired as the sage of his era by his successors, the Iranian historian Tabari (native of Tabaristan, present day Mazandaran) was born in 224 Hijri and died in 310, according to Ibn Nadim, author of al Fihrist (the List).
Many of sources cited by Tabari have not survived, which renders Tabari’s work even more important. His work which gives the accounts of events until 302 Hijri has been completed by Arib ibn Sa’ad Qurtubi which includes those until 320.
Regarding the Caucasus in times of Arab conquests and caliphate in the first couple of Hijri centuries, his Tarikh ar Resal wal Moluk (تاريخ الرسل و الملوک) is a trustworthy document. Most of the people whose tales are related by Tabari were present in the wars in the time of Arab invasions in the Caucasus.
Tabari’s report of the second caliph Omar’s order to Armenians and peoples living in “Armenia and Abwab” (Aghvank which was part of Armenia), where he gives them assurance that their lives will be spared if they obey him and his appointed ruler, concludes: “…in case of war, they have to participate… Whoever accepts to obey will pay the jizyah (tribute tax H.) except for those who join the army… whoever is not needed to participate can stay and pay the jizyah like the people of Azarbaijan (the real H.)” This shows that first, even Christians were allowed to join the military and be exempted from paying heavy taxes second, the people of the real Azarbaijan had already converted to Islam, obeyed Omar and were paying their taxes in the early years of Arab conquest whereas the people of Armenia and Aghvank had remained Christian. This also proves that Aghvank and Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) were two distinct regions and religiously unrelated.
Recounting the events of 145 Hijri, Tabari also reports the Khazar invasion into Armenia from Bab ul Abwab (Darband, Chor) and their occupation of lands north of the River Kur. This clearly shows that there was no doubt in Tabari’s mind that Aghvank was a part of Armenia. The Khazars repeated the intrusion two years later, pillaged Aghvank and returned to their land with booty and prisoners.
Again in 183 Hijri, using the pretext of his daughter’s death on the way to Aghvank to marry Fadhl ibn Yahya ibn Khalid Barmaki, the caliph appointed ruler of Armenia, Azarbaijan (the real) and Jebal (land of Medes = western part of Iran), the Khazar khan once again attacked Armenia from Darband and killed the Muslims and Dhimmis and took a hundred thousand slaves. “Such mayhem was never heard of before in Islamic era” Tabari confesses.
Tabari gives accounts of Yussof ibn abis Saj’s wars with Smbat Bagratuni from 295 Hijri (908 AD) and Saj’s appointment by al Muqtadir as the representative of the caliph in Armenia and Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan). ●
Ibn Faqih (late 9th-early 10th centuries AD)
Full: Abu Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Faqih Hamadani
ابي عبدالله احمد بن محمد بن اسحاق ابن فقيه همداني
Work: Mokhtasar al Buldan (Concise Book of Lands)
Ibn Faqih wrote his geographic work in about 290 Hijri. According to Ibn Faqih, Armenia consisted of four parts what he calls first, second, third and fourth Armenia. Aran (Aghvank) and Sisjan (Sisakan) were a part of first Armenia (Medz Hyke, Armenia Maior). It should be noted that in another part of his work he places them in fourth Armenia. He names several cities in Aghvank among others: Bardhae (Partaw, Պարտաւ), Beylakan (Pytakaran, Փայտակարան), Qabalah (Kabalak, Կապաղակ), Shirvan, Shabran, Sheki (Shakeh, Շաքէ), Shamkhor, Bilasjan.
According to Ibn Faqih, the region north of the Arax and south of the Kur is part of Armenia and the Arax is the border between Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and Armenia. Regarding Neshwi (Nakhijevan), Ibn Faqih places it in the third Armenia.
Concerning the origin of the name of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan), Ibn Faqih says: “Azarbaijan is (related to) Azarbad ibn Iran… or Azarbad ibn Biurasp.” ●
Massoudi (c. 896-956 AD)
Full: Abul Hassan Ali ibn Hussein Massoudi
ابوالحسن علي بن حسين مسعودي
Work: Muruj udh Dhahb wa Ma’aden ul Jowhar (The Meadows of Gold and the Mines of Gems), At Tanbih wal Ashraf, etc.
مروج الذهب و معادن الجوهر, التنبيه و الاشراف
The great Islamic scientist and historian native of Maghreb, Massoudi, died 344 Hijri according to ibn Nadim, is the author of many works some of which historical and geographical. He traveled far and wide and recorded his observations and research in those lands. The two works cited above are considered an encyclopedia in the domain of historical geography. Massoudi’s work has an eminent place among Islamic works related to the Caucasus. “I spent quite some time in Armenia, Azarbaijan (the real H.), Aran (Aghvank) and Beylakan (Pytakaran H.)”, Massoudi explains. According to him “the realm of the Persians included the entire Medes and Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) until the vicinity of Armenia, Aran and Beylakan…” which confirms that Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and Aghvank were different entities.
Massoudi considers the dialects of Pahlavi, Dari and Azari from the same origin, their vocabularies one and the same and calls all of them languages of the Farsi group. He is among the Islamic historians who have used the term Azari to describe the Persian dialect of the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan).
A noteworthy event also related by Massoudi is the uprising of Babak Khorramdin (from 820s AD) against the caliphate, to restore the ancient Iranian religion and to free Iran from the Arab rule. I mention this because not having any historical background the “Azeri” fakers have stolen every Iranian hero, poet, scientist, ruling dynasty, etc. along with the name of their counterfeit “state”, to fabricate their jumbled “history”. Twisting history beyond recognition, they regard Babak Khorramdin, native of the real Azarbaijan, as “their” greatest hero who fought to liberate “Turkish” Azarbaijanis from Iranian rule (!) whereas it’s hardly conceivable Babak knew any Turks in his lifetime let alone having been a Turk two full centuries before the Oghuz (Seljuk) invasions.
Another instance of anti-Armenian hate mongering by “Azeris” is their blaming the Armenians for Babak’s painful death, whose limbs were cut off by Afshin, al Mu’tasim’s general who fought Babak. After heavy battles with Afshin up to a thousand of his warriors were killed, his fortress gave in and he had to run north to Armenia. Crossing the Arax the ruler of Aghvank (north to Artsakh), Sahl ibn Smbat (Sahl Smbatian of Aranshah dynasty, Սահլ/Սահղ Սմբատեան), caught him and handed him over to Afshin. This shallow account of history will certainly confuse those who are uninformed of the fact of the matter but even in that case, are the actions of one historic figure reason enough to denounce an entire nation? A closer look at the fact of the matter proves the exact opposite.
In 821 Sahl Smbatian launched a surprise attack on Shikakar fortress and crushed the Arabs who had reduced the Amaras monastery to rubble and had enslaved about a thousand people. Later his participation played an instrumental role in the victory against a 12000 strong Arab army in Mughan plain in 837, the very same year he arrested Babak. Taking these events and Babak’s movement which was directed against the caliph into account, Sahl should have considered Babak a god sent ally but what the “Azeris” don’t want to say is that Babak would attack, harass, plunder and massacre the people of Artsakh and Siunik on regular basis, therefore it’s more because Babak had become a nuisance for people that Sahl handed him over to the Arabs and not out of treachery.
According to Massoudi, Sahl Smbatian hoped that the caliph would grant him the status of king of Aghvank but his wishes didn’t come true. He adds: “Afshin promoted Sahl and gave him gifts and noble attire and a crown. He provided him with guards and servants and exempted him from tax” but Mu’tasim did not make Sahl Smbatian the independent king of Aghvank and he remained only the ruler of Sheki (Shakeh).
In 854 Mu’tasim ordered the Turkish Buqa khan (against who Sahl had also fought) to arrest Sahl Smbatian along with a number of other Armenian rulers and sent them to exile and torture in Samara. He was never heard of afterwards...
This is like a double edge sword for the “Azeris”: if Sahl Smbatian is an Armenian king, then it proves that Aghvank was a part of Armenia. If “Azeris” are truly the descendants of the Aghvans as they absurdly claim, then it was an Aghvan ruler, i.e. an “Azeri” who betrayed Babak, the pretended greatest hero of the “Azeris”. ●
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:41 AM
Full: Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Farsi al Istakhri
ابواسحاق ابراهيم بن محمدبن فارسي الاصطخري
Work: Masalek wa Mamalek (Roads and Countries), Sovar al Aqalim (Maps of Lands)
مسالك و ممالك, صور الاقاليم
Istakhri (died 346 Hijri) was from Istakhr (Estakhr) in Fars and traveled in Islamic countries.
Istakhri’s geographic work presents separate maps of Armenia, Aran (Aghvank) and Azarbaijan and gives names of cities in Aran: Beylakan (Pytakaran, Փայտակարան), Varthan (Vartanakert), Shamakhi, Shirvan, Shabran, Abkhaz, Qabalah (Kabalak, Կապաղակ), Sheki (Shakeh, Շաքէ), Ganja (Gandzak, Գանձակ), etc. and Bardhae (Partaw, Պարտաւ) as its capital. He cites Ardebil, Maragha, Urmia, Mianeh, Khuneh, Ujan, Dakharghan (Dehkharghan), Salmas, Khoy, Marand, Tabriz, Barzand, Varthan (Vartanakert), Mughan, Oshneh (Oshno), etc. as cities in Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and Ardebil as the capital of the same.
It’s interesting that Istkahri sometimes considers Neshwi (Nakhijevan) part of Azarbaijan (the real) and other times part of Armenia. This is because Nakhijevan would at times be assigned under the administration of real Azarbaijan. This fact can be abused by “Azeris” to claim Nakhijevan. This is misleading simply because at that time fake “Azerbaijan” did not exist and Aghvank and Azarbaijan (the real) were accounted for as separate entities, with Aghvank seen as part of Armenia. Istakhri’s account of the borders of Azarbaijan (the real) eliminates all doubts: “the limits of Azarbayegan are from Tarom to Zangan (Zanjan) to Dinvar (Dinawar) to Halvan up to the city Zur to Tigris and the borders of Armenia”. Note that according to Istakhri, real Azarbaijan has no borders with Aghvank.
Describing the language of the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) Istakhri says: “In these regions everyone speaks Arabic and Persian …the people of Ardebil speak Armenian. Around Bardha (Partaw) there’s a mountain and they have different languages”. About the language of the peoples of Aghvank he says: “Seventy and some groups live around that mountain (Darband H.) and each speaks a different language so that neighbors do not understand the language of one another”.
An interesting point in Istakhri’s book is that he also confirms: “the language of the Khazars is similar to Turkish and no other people speak this language”, a proof that not only in Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and Armenia, but also in Aghvank not a single soul could understand a word of Turkish in those days. ●
Ibn Rosteh (mid 9th-early 10th centuries AD)
Full: Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Omar ibn Rosteh
ابو علي احمدبن عمربن رسته
Work: Al A’laq an Nafiseh
Written around the end of the third century Hijri, the late third or early fourth century Hijri Isfahani geographer Ibn Rosteh confirms Aghvank as being a province (Khoras = province, from Greek) of Armenia.
He cites Aran (Aghvank), Jorzan (Georgia), Neshwi (Nakhijavan, Նախիջևան), Khlat, Dabil (Dvin, Դւին), Saghdbil, Seraj, Arjish (Arjesh), Bajonis, Sisjan (Sisakan) and Bab ul Abwab (Darband, Chor) as Khoras of Armenia.
Regarding Azarbaijan (the real) he names Ardebil, Marand, Bajrevan (Bagrevand, Բագրևանդ), Varthan (Vartanakert), Maragha as its provinces or cities (Khoras). ●
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:44 AM
Full: Abulqassem Muhammad ibn Hawqal
ابوالقاسم محمدبن حوقل
Work: Sourat ul Ardh (The Map of the Earth)
Ibn Hawqal’s Map of Armenia, Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and Aghvank (Ar Ran)
The fourth century Hijri geographer Ibn Hawqal Baghdadi (died 367 Hijri) who traveled in the region, continues the work of Istakhri. He has lived for a while in Armenia and Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan). He dedicates an important chapter of his work to Armenia, Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and Aran (Aghvank) and presents the three regions separately on his map. Ibn Hawqal confirms that Aran is situated in the north of the Arax River whereas Azarbaijan is to the south of Arax.
He mentions different capitals: Bardha (Partaw) for Aran (Aghvank) and Ardebil for Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan).
Ibn Hawqal gives independent accounts of Armenia, Aran (Aghvank) and Azarbaijan. He also mentions Bardhae (Partaw, Պարտաւ), Jinzeh (Gandzak, Ganja, Գանձակ), Shamkhor, Shamakhieh, Shirvan, Shabran, Qabalah (Kabalak, Կապաղակ) and Sheki (Shakeh, Շաքէ) in Aran (Aghvank) and Ardebil, Tabriz, Salmas, Khoy, Urmia, Maragha, Oshno, Mianaj (Mianeh), Marand, etc. in Azarbaijan.
He uses the term Azari to define the dialect of the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) to distinguish it from other dialects of Persian, a simple fact that exposes the fallacy of applying the term Azari or “Azeri” to the Turkish dialect spoken in the region. He says people of Azarbaijan speak Farsi but the merchants and land owners also understand Arabic. About Armenia he confirms that the people speak different dialects of Armenian also in Dabil (Dvin) and Neshwi (Nakhijevan). The people of Aran speak Arani, also different infidel ethnicities speak their own languages according to Ibn Hawqal. Interesting enough, the language of the Aghvans had survived until Ibn Hawqal’s times and there’s still not an iota of evidence of any Turkish in the region. It should be noted that the people of Azarbaijan were already Muslim centuries before this, yet another fact that proves Azarbaijan and Aran were not a single entity.
According to Ibn Hawqal: “In ancient times Dabil (Dvin) was ruled by Snbat ibn Ashot (Smbat) king of Armenia and since the times of his forefathers, their notables held it until Abulghassem Yussof ibn abis Saj conquered that city...” in another place, describing the road from Partaw, capital of Aghvank to Dvin he adds: “the road from Bardha to Dabil in Armenia and all the cities and villages there were ruled by the Armenian king Snbat ibn Ashot until Yussof ibn abis Saj usurped it with treachery and cruelty against the orders of Allah and his prophet” (in 915 AD).
Ibn Hawqal reports that in his time Aran (Aghvank) and eastern parts of Armenia were all under the administration of the ruler of Azarbaijan (the real). This shows that Aran and Azarbaijan (the real) were not one country, what the “Azeris” try to make the world believe, rather, the administrative division of regions under Iranian rule changed from time to time, sometimes putting parts of Aran or Armenia under the administration of the ruler of Azarbaijan (the real). ●
Kharazmi (Khwarizmi, ?- 997 AD)
Full: Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Yussof Kharazmi
ابوعبدالله محمدبن احمدبن يوسف خوارزمي
Works: Mafatih ul Ulum (Keys to the Sciences)
Kharazmi (died 387 Hijri, not to be mistaken with the great Iranian mathematician (lived 780-850 AD) whose name gave us the term algorithm), who lived in the fourth century Hijri (10th c. AD) gives the following explanation about Pahlavi Persian: “Fahlavieh (Pahlavi) belongs to the Iranian group of languages which was spoken by kings in their courts. This word is attributed to Pahleh and it’s the name that was given to the following five cities (lands): Isfahan, Rey, Hamadan, Mah Nahavand and Azarbijan (Azarbaijan the real H.)”. ●
Sohrab (Ibn Srabion)
Work: Ajayeb ul Aqalim… (Wonders of Places…)
عجائب الاقاليم السبعه الي نهايت العماره
A fourth century Hijri geographer of probably Iranian origin has dedicated an important chapter of his book to rivers. Sohrab mentions the River Kur as a river inside Armenia and the River Arax an external river of Armenia. This confirms that Aghvank was considered a part of Armenia in his days. ●
Work: Hodud ul A’alam min al Mashreq ilal Maghreb
حدود العالم من المشرق الي المغرب
The author of this valuable geographic work from the fourth century Hijri is unknown. The book is written in Farsi and includes a description of Aghvank. “Khonan is a region on the banks of the River Kur which is the border between Armenia and Aran (Aghvank)” which places Aran to the north of the River Kur according to the anonymous author of Hodud ul A’alam. ●
Muqaddasi (Moghaddasi) (c. 942-c. end of 10th c.)
Full: Shamseddin abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn abu Bakr Bana’a Shami Muqaddasi
شمس الدين ابوعبدالله محمدبن احمدبن ابي بکر بناﺀ شامي مقدسي
Work: Ahsan at Taghasim fi Ma’rifat al Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions)
احسن التقاسيم في معرفه الاقاليم
A well known geographer from the fourth century Hijri (born around 331 Hijri), Muqaddasi divides Iran into eight parts (اقاليم Aqalim =plural of اقليم iqlim = realm) and cites Azarbaijan (the real) and Aran (Aghvank) as separate iqlims (khoras).
He describes the three khoras of Rahab as Aran (Aghvank), Armenia and Azarbaijan (the real) as follows: “The first Aran, to the north of Aran Lake (the Caspian), the second Armenia and the third Azarbaijan.”
About Aghvank he writes: “Aran is like an island between the Lake (Caspian) and Arax, and the Malek (= king = Kur from Koorosh = Cyrus) River runs through it.” As cities in Aran he mentions Bardhae (Partaw, Պարտաւ), Tiflis (Tbilisi), Shamkhor, Ganja (Gandzak, Գանձակ), Shirvan, Bakooh (Baku), Shabran, Bab ul Abwab (Darband, Chor, Chol, Չող), Sheki (Shakeh, Շաքէ), Abkhaz among others.
Regarding Azarbaijan (the real) he writes: “Azarbaijan is a khora founded by Azarbad (Atropat, Atrpat) son of Biurasp. Its capital is Ardebil and its cities are Rasbah, Tabriz, Jabravan, Khunaj (Khooneh), Mianaj (Mianeh), Saraw (Sarab), Barwi, Varthan (Vartanakert), Mughan, Meimand and Barzand, Salmas, Urmia, Maragha and Marand… Zanjan is on the border of Azarbaijan (the real H.)”.
Muqaddasi calls the languages of these eight Aqalim (khoras) of Ajami (Iranian) origin “some of them Dari (one of the major branches of Persian close to the modern Farsi H.) and some complicated, but all of them Parsi …the language of the people of Azarbaijan (the real H.) isn’t as intelligible (influences of old Pahlavi dialect H.). In Armenia people speak Armenian and in Aran, Arani. Their Persian is intelligible and is similar to the dialects of Khorasan.” Not a single cloud patch of Turkish in the horizon. ●
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:46 AM
Full: Abu Reyhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Biruni
ابوريحان محمدبن احمد بيروني
Work: Athar ul Baghieh, Al Jamahir, etc.
آثار الباقيه, الجماهير
The great Iranian scientist, physicist, mathematician, geographer, historian and literary figure Abu Reyhan Biruni (about 360s–440s Hijri) in his accounts of the region mentions Bardha (Partaw) a city in Aran (Aghvank) close to the River Kur, Beylakan (Pytakaran), Khlat, Arjish (Arjesh, Argishtiuni, Արճեշ, Արգիշտիունի), Shirvan and Bab ul Abwab (Darband, Chor). He explains that Bab ul Abwab is also known as Darband of Khazar and Bakooh (Baku) is the source of white naft (oil). Abureyhan considers all these regions part of Armenia until Vartan (Vartanakert) which according to him was under Azarbayegan’s (Azarbaijan the real) jurisdiction. ●
Abulfada (Abul Fida, ?- 1331 AD)
Full: Emadeddin Ismail ibn Muhammad ibn Omar Abulfada
عمادالدین اسمعيل بن محمدبن عمر ابوالفداﺀ
Work: Taqwim al Buldan
The seventh/eighth century Hijri historian and geographer Abulfada (died 732 Hijri) is a descendant of Salaheddin (Saladin) Ayyubi. His work deals mainly with Iran but it contains valuable information about Asia Minor as well. A chapter in his work is about Armenia, Aran (Aghvank) and Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) with detailed descriptions of their geographic features.
Abulfada says: “Armenia, Aran (Aghvank H.) and Azarbaijan (the real H.) are three large and separate realms that are represented together on maps by the experts”.
Describing the borders of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) he states: “it is limited by Deylam in the east and Iraq to the south… Aran’s (Aghvank H.) borders starts in Bab (Darband H.) to Tiflis (Tbilisi H.) until near Arax River in a place known as Hajeiran… And Azarbaijan (the real H.) begins in Hajeiran and stretches till Zanjan, Dinvar to Halvan and the city Zur and turns until it reaches near Tigris and the borders of Armenia” which clearly shows that an “Azerbaijan” north of the Arax is nothing but 20th century mythology. ●
Qudamah ibn Jafar Katib Baghdadi
قدامت بن جعفر کتيب بغدادي
Work: Kitab ul Kharaj
Qudamah ibn Jafar mentions the khoras and considers Aran (Aghvank) a khora of Armenia. ●
Ibn Miskuyeh (?-1030 AD)
Full: Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Miskuyeh Razi
ابو علي احمدبن محمدبن مسکويه رازي
Work: Tajarib al Umam (Experiences of Nations)
A famous Iranian historian, Ibn Miskuyeh (died 421 Hijri) served the rulers of Al Buyeh. In Tajarib al Umam he narrates the Russian invasion in Aghvank and the events of Yussof ibn abis Saj’s time, the caliph al Muqtadir appointed ruler of Azarbaijan (the real), Aghvank and Armenia. Abis Saj stops paying taxes to the caliph (299 Hijri). He treacherously obtains the rule of Qazvin, Rey, Zanjan and Abhar. ●
Bakri Qurtubi (?-c. 1094 AD)
Full: Abu Ubeid Abdullah al Bakri Qurtubi (of Cordoba)
ابو عبید عبدالله البكري قرطبي
Work: Al Massalek wal Mamalek
المسالک و الممالک
Bakri Qurtubi (died around 487 Hijri) is a well known Arab geographer from Spain. Besides Al Massalek wal Mamalek, he compiled one of the earliest Islamic encyclopedias. Bakri considers Aran (Aghvank) a khora in Armenia. He explains: “Khoras of Armenia: Aran (Aghvank), Jorzan (Georgia), Neshwi (Nakhijevan), Khlat, Dabil (Dvin), Seraj, Jordbil, Arjish (Arjesh), Sisjan (Sisakan), the city of Bab ul Abwab (Darband, Chor) and Hey Darjan”. He confirms that Azarbaijan (the real) is a separate khora. ●
Idrissi (1100-1163 AD)
Full:Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Muhammad Sharif Idrissi
ابوعبدالله محمدبن محمد الادريسي
Work:Nuzhat ul Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al Afaq (The Delight for Who Desires to Journey through Different Horizons)
نزهة المشتاق في الاختراق الافاق
The sixth century (493–around 560) Hijri Andalusian geographer Sharif Idrissi studied mathematics, history and geography in Cordoba and visited Asia Minor among other destinations. From 1138 he lived at the court of the Sicilian king Roger II, who ordered him to draw the map of the world. In his manuscript he has drawn the maps of Armenia, Aran (Aghvank) and Azarbaijan as three separate entities. ●
Full: Muhammad ibn Mahmood ibn Ahmad Toosi
محمدبن محمودبن احمد طوسي
Work: Aja’eb ul Makhluqat (Marvels of Creatures)
The Iranian geographer, Toosi lived in the sixth century Hijri and dedicated his work to Tughril ibn Arslan ibn Tughril, a Seljuk ruler of Iraq. He says: “Bardha (Partaw H.) …is a city on the border of Armenia to the Caucasus Mountain.” Note that this is already in the times after the Seljuk invasions. Not a single sign of “Azeri” or “Azerbaijan” in the region north of the Arax is yet to be discerned. ●
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:48 AM
Full: Izzeddin Ali ibn Athir
عزالدين علي بن اثير
Work: Al Kamel fit Tarikh (Complete History)
الکامل في التاريخ
An important and well known historian of the sixth and seventh Hijri centuries, Ibn Athir (555 – 630 Hijri), continues Tabari’s work and recounts the events of the centuries after Tabari. He presents valuable facts concerning the Mongol and Tatar invasions in Aran (Aghvank) and Shirvan. He has always mentioned Aghvank distinct from Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) throughout his book. For instance, regarding the Seljuk sultan Mahmood he writes: “The vast realm of Mahmood consisted of Rey and its districts, the city (land) of Jebal, Isfahan, Fars, Khuzestan, Iraq, Azarbaijan (the real H.), Aran (Aghvank H.), Armenia, Diarbekr, Jazira (Mesopotamia), Mosul, Sham (Syria H.) and other places.”
He narrates the events of 430 Hijri and informs that tens of thousands of Turks “raided Muslim (conquered H.) lands around Kashghar and Blasghun, pillaged and plundered, then converted to Islam and beheaded twenty thousand sheep on the day of Eed Qurban… Before that, these tribes had to stay together to defend themselves from the Muslims but after accepting Islam, they dispersed and were scattered throughout Muslim lands…”
Relating the events of 440 Hijri Ibn Athir says: “In this year, a huge number of Oghuz Turks (Seljuks H.) came to Ibrahim Yenal (half sibling of Tughril and the ruler of Rey and Hamadan). He told them: my land does not have the capacity of housing and feeding you. You’d better go to Rum (Asia Minor), fight the infidels in the Cause of Allah.”
In 440s Hijri (1054 AD), Tughril invaded Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and headed towards Tabriz. Amir Wahsoodan ibn Muhammad Ravvadi the ruler of that land offered his submission to Tughril… Later out of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan), Tughril took the direction of Aran (Aghvank) and raided Ganja (Gandzak), the capital of Aran (Aghvank). Abul Aswar the ruler of Ganja submitted as well. Tughril took some hostages from local rulers but allowed them to govern their land according to Ibn Athir.
The sad events of 457 Hijri (1065 AD) are also mentioned by Ibn Athir (he cites 456 Hijri as the date of this event). On this ill day befell the tragedy of the rape of Ani by the bloodthirsty Alp Arslan, the Seljuk bandit “king”. On Turkish websites, the Seljuk calamity is presented as the salvation of Armenians from the Byzantines. The Turkish disinformation has the easy job of twisting historical facts 180 degrees and spamming the lies all over the internet to increase the credibility of their falsifications. ●
Yaqut Hamawi (1179-1229 AD)
Full: Abu Abdullah Yaqut ibn Abdullah Hamawi
ابوعبدالله ياقوت بن عبداله حموي
Work: Mo’jam al Buldan (Book of Countries)
The sixth/Seventh centuries Hijri geographer Yaqut Hamawi is the author of the well known geographic encyclopedia Mo’jam al Buldan.
Yaqut believes that Aran is an Iranian name. According to him, “Between Aran (Aghvank H.) and Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan H.) there’s a river called Aras (Arax H.). Aran is situated to the north of Aras and Azarbaijan lies to the south of this river”. Still no “Azerbaijan” north of the Arax! He also cites Deylam, Gilan and Tarom as the internal eastern limits of Azarbaijan (the real). Yaqut mentions Tabriz “the largest city of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan H.). Its other cities are Maragha, Khoy, Salmas, Urmia, Ardebil, Marand, etc.”
The Mughan plain in southeast of present day fake “Azerbaijan” is the land of origin of a people known as Mokk in Armenian and reported by Herodotus as Mycians (Miks, Muxoi, Mukhoi). In Islamic texts they are referred to as the Mughan. Yaqut Hamawi relates the mythological origins of Gilan (north of Iran, near the Caspian, Mazandaran and Azarbaijan the real) and Mughan and believes they are proper names. He says: “Mughan and his brother Gilan were sons of Kashaj ibn Japheth ibn Nuh (Noah H.) and they lived in Tabaristan (Mazandaran H.).” This story reveals that the peoples of Gilan and Mughan are related from ancient times and are of Iranian origin.
Describing the language of the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) Yaqut Hamawi pulverizes the myth of Azari having anything to do with Turkish: “they speak a language which is called Azari and nobody understands it besides themselves”. ●
Zachariah Qazvini (Ghazvini) (1203-1283 AD)
Full: Zachariah Emadeddin ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmood Qazvini
زكريا عمادالدين بن محمدبن محمود قزويني
Works: Athar al Bilad wa Akhbar al Ibad (Vestiges of Countries and Information on Men), Aja’eb ul Makhluqat wa Ghara’eb ul Mawjudat (Marvels of Creature and Strange Beings)
عجائب المخلوقات و غرائب الموجودات
In Zachariah Qazvini’s geographical work about Aghvank we read: “Aran (Aghvank H.) is a land near Azarbaijan (the real H.), Armenia and Abkhazia where there are many cities. The provinces of Aran are Ganja (Gandzak H.), Shirvan and Beylakan (Pytakaran H.) …The River Kur runs between Armenia and Aran …Mughan is a vast province in Azarbaijan (the real H.).” ●
Hamdollah Qazvini (Ghazvini) (1281-1349 AD)
Full: Zineddin Ibn Hamdollah Mostowfi Qazvini
زين الدين بن حمدالله مستوفي قزويني
Work: Nuzhat ul Qulub (The Delight of Hearts)
Hamdollah Qazvini (seventh/eighth centuries Hijri) cites the cities of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan), among others: “Tabriz, Oujan, Ardebil, Khalkhal, Shahrood, Meshkin, Anar, Ahar, Nowzar, Khoy, Salmas, Urmia, Sarab, Miana, Maragha, Marand, Zanjan…” where not a single one of them has anything to do with Aghvank.
Writing about the language of the people of Maragha in real Azarbaijan he confirms: “they speak a modified dialect of Pahlavi”. This shows that as late as the eighth century Hijri (14th century AD), the darkest days of the Mongol rule, the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) still spoke their original Iranian language and not Turkish. ●
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
Full: Abu Zayd Abdurrahman ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldun
ابو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون
An internationally respected scholar, Ibn Khaldun was born in 732 Hijri in Tunis and died in 808 Hijri. He met Teimur (Timberline) in Damascus when Teimur held it under siege. Writing about lands under Islamic rule, he considers Aran (Aghvank) of its fifth part and a land neighboring Armenia and Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan). He reports the Mongol invasion of Aran in 618 Hijri and their pillage of Beylakan (Pytakaran) and also the attack of the Georgians, who he mistakenly considers Turks (!), in 619 Hijri. ●
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:50 AM
In 1924 Bartold delivered a series of lectures at a university in Baku. Once he was asked “aren’t the Aghvans and the Armenians the same people? It’s hard to imagine that a nation who had a writing system and a translation of the Bible suddenly lost their language and disappeared from the scene of history.”
While Bartold responded by citing examples of other ethnicities with a similar fate, nevertheless, this question itself confirms that the Armenians are the closest nation to the Aghvans culturally, historically, religiously, racially and geographically, and it is not surprising that the records of Armenian historians dealing with Aghvank throughout centuries are the most exhaustive of all.
Especially after Mesrop Mashtots’ invention of the Armenian alphabet at the end of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth century AD, the Golden Age of the Armenian literature brought forth numerous authors who recorded the historic accounts of their time and translated those of their predecessors into Armenian. Among these are Movses Khorenatsi, Pavstos Buzand, Agathangelos, Sebeos and Ghazar Parpetsi, who have also chronicled the events pertaining to the Aghvans.
Keeping in mind the limitless rancor and hate propaganda against the Armenians that has intensified after their miserable defeat from the Armenians in their self-perpetrated war on Artsakh, the ugly manifestations of this hatred in the barbaric slaughter of Gurgen Markarian on February 19, 2004 by the “Azeri” monster Ramil Safarov, the savage destruction of the ancient Jugha cemetery in December 2005 in front of the eyes of an indifferent civilized world, the endless warmongering rhetoric from the highest “Azeri” authorities, to name but a few, it is certain that the mention of the word Armenian throws the “Azeris” into a hysterical frenzy rejecting everything coming from Armenian sources, ancient or modern. It is as if the fifth century Armenian historians who never saw a Turk in their lives had supernatural prophetic powers to foresee that Turks would ravage the civilizations west of the Caspian starting six hundred years after their time and a fake “Azerbaijan” would be counterfeited on the soil of their homeland fifteen centuries later. Whatever the Turks want to believe and make believe, at least one Armenian historian can in no way be neglected when talking about the Aghvans: Movses Kaghankatouatsi, a historian who is also abused by the “Azeris” who misquote him in their baloney history inventions and attribute him to themselves.
Without any doubt, the most complete historical record of Aghvank, History of Aghvank, comes from the seventh century Armenian historian, Movses Kaghankatouatsi, himself a citizen of Kaghankatooik (Kalankatu) a village in the Utik province near the River Tartar in the Aghvank of the day.
It should be noted that another Armenian historian with the same first name, Movses Daskhorantsi, added additional chapters to this work in the 10th century. This has confused some researchers who do not read Armenian and have had to consult second hand sources, to express fallacious ideas about Kaghankatouatsi’s era and have mistakenly put him in the 10th century.
Relating the accounts of war between Khossrow II Parviz (591-628 AD) and Heraclius I (610-641 AD), he writes: “In the winter, the Roman emperor captured 50,000 prisoners from Atrpatakan and moved to the lands north of the Arax, especially Aghvank that had warmer winters and after settling in Aghvank, wrote letters to the Kings of Aghvank, Iberia (Georgia H.), and Armenia to aid the Romans in the war against Iranians”.
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:52 AM
“In the 38th year of the rule of Khossrow (Khossrow Parviz, the Sassanid king of the time. H.) which was a year of tribulation and affliction …the [Turkish] Jebu (Jebqu/Jabghu) Khan arrived with his son. No one could count their army. When this horrific news came to Aghvank, Hyshak, the ruler of Aghvank who had been appointed to his post by Khossrow, decided to protect our land from the [Turkish] invaders and gather the people in the Partaw fortress... He thought he could resist with the aid of the notables. While he was worryingly anticipating the events, he heard news of the calamity visited upon the fortress of Chor (Darband/Derbend. H.) and its defenders...
Indeed, in the time of the universal misfortune which was in front of us all, first they slammed it against the waves of the immense sea and razed the fortress to the ground. Seeing the malevolent, imminent danger from the evil, monstrous ugly horde with brazen wide, eyelash-less countenances and long hair scattered over their faces like women, Hyshak, shook with fear especially when he saw the arrows that poured upon them like a violent hailstorm from the strung bows of their archers.
In the manner of bloodthirsty wolves and without a grain of shame and decency they attacked the people of the city and ruthlessly slaughtered them in the streets. There was no sign of any mercy in the eyes of these butchers regarding the beautiful, young women either. They massacred the boys and girls as well.
They did not even pity the harmless beings and the disabled and elderly who were unable to fight. Neither they spared the children nor the young, nor would their hearts soften regarding suckling and babies. These innocent infants were lying on the torn apart cadavers of their mothers and were sucking blood from their teats instead of milk. The moment they entered a house, like fire in a haystack, they would burn every place to cinders and they would reduce everything to rubble. The moment they would leave a house they had broken into, they paved the way for the beasts of prey and scavengers from sky and the ground...”
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:54 AM
A most significant record in History of Aghvank is Movses Kaghankatouatsi’s presentation of the ancestral tree of the Aghvans. As it appears, at his time, the Aghvans were seen to be of the same origin as the Armenians, namely the descendants of Hyke, the forefather of the Armenians according to their mythology.
Hyke is no fantastic creature endowed with supernatural powers or unnatural anatomical growths but a mere mortal yet a skilled archer who liberates his people by defeating their tyrannical oppressor, Bel, who he kills, thus, avoiding unnecessary bloodshed on both sides, of fighting soldiers. This is also a reflection of the worldview of the Armenians who even in their mythology disdain senseless loss of human life, albeit in the context of war.
Whether Hyke existed or not is less relevant to our subject, rather the fact that the Aghvans and Armenians were thought to be from the same origin long before the Turks devastated the region, gains importance in the light of the shameless historical fabrications of the “Azeris” to somehow convince the world that they are not the leftovers of hordes of nomadic, Ural-Altaic, Mongolo-Tatar, Oghuz-Turkmen, cattle-herder, prowling invaders that only appeared this side of the Caspian from the 11th century onward, but they are descendants of settled, civilized, Christian Aghvans who had already disappeared from the scene of human history, mainly having assimilated with the Armenians. Besides, the Turks consider a gray wolf, which, according to their oral accounts copulated with a bleeding, mutilated youth, as the origin of the Turks.
It’s obvious that Movses Kaghankatouatsi has used the fifth century Armenian historian, Movses Khorenatsi’s History of Armenia as his source for the ancestral tree of the Aghvans from Noah to Tigran Yervanduni. Again, whether some of these names belong to the realm of mythology or not is irrelevant, the tree reflects the fact that the Armenians and the Aghvans regarded each other descendants of the same ancestors none of which have anything to do with the Turks, stronger even, after the first couple of names, with any other nation!
It is worth mentioning that Movses Khorenatsi also cites the names of the ancestors of the Hebrews and the Chaldeans in two additional columns parallel to the Armenians.
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:55 AM
Ever since the fabrication of fake “Azerbaijan” in 1918 and the fertile Soviet ground for producing fiction for consumption as history, the long disappeared nation (in fact multitude of ethnicities) known as the Aghvans, Aluanians or Caucasus Albanians has become a controversial item despite or thanks to their status of being extinct. Any quote from Armenian or Iranian scholars is vehemently labeled by the “Azeris” as chauvinistic while the farcical distortions of history, a natural consequence of forcing a sham state to be regarded as an ancient civilization mainly through the efforts of the arch-falsifier Ziya Bunyatov (Buniyatov) and his followers, can simply not be taken seriously by anybody, not even by a rather pro-Turkish author.
As it is outside the scope of the present essay to mention or quote every scholar from whatever nationality who has written about Aghvank (Aran, Caucasus Albania) in modern times and keeping in mind the political climate of the period or the country where these were produced, a number of more or less impartial authors are presented below leaving the enthusiasts to do their own research into modern historians related to our subject.
Vasili Vladimirovich Bartold (1869-1930)
The renowned Russian academician Bartold has mainly researched and written about the Turks and the inhabitants of Central Asia. He has this to say about the origin of the name Azarbaijan: “Before Alexander’s incursion Iranian Azarbaijan (the real H.) was an inseparable part of Media and didn’t have an independent administration. In the battle of Gaugamela Atropat was the satrap of entire Media… After Alexander, a part of Media that was called the Lesser Media remained under Atropat’s rule. Later on Atropat’s name was added to the name of this land. The Greeks called it Atropatena and the Armenians called it Atrpatakan. This is where the name of Azarbaijan originated.” (Emphasis is mine H.)
Bartold describes “the Arax River which at present separates Iran and the Caucasus” as “a distinct ethnic and racial border between Iranian lands of the Medes and Albania (the usual but confusing term used in Soviet and most western sources for Aghvank H.) in ancient times where the ethnicities were of Japhethite origin according to N. Marr”.
Though there are several fallacies in the above quote, mainly in considering the north of Arax the beginning of the Caucasus whereas its southernmost part is the River Kur, we must be reminded of the political situation of the time where the whole of fake “Azerbaijan” was being treated as the exact geographic situation of Aghvank (Aran, Caucasus Albania). Yet we know that the northeastern part of this fabricated state was once part of Sarmatia the ancestors of today’s Ossets or Alans, also the land of Massagets, Artsakh has sometimes been considered an administrative region of Aghvank under the Sassanids.
Bartold has noted further that the River Kur had become the southern border of Aghvank in the time of the Caliph Marwan. Bartold goes on: “in the historic periods a strong racial and ethnic border has always divided the Iranian Medes from the peoples living in [Caucasus] Albania …the ethnic and racial differences between Azarbaijan (the real H.) and Albania (Aghvank H.) did not disappear even in the Islamic era. The language of the people of Azarbaijan (the real H.) differed from that of the people of Albania (Aghvank H.)”.
Explaining the reason why the name “Azerbaijan” was plagiarized by the Tatars for their fabricated state Bartold opines: “The name Azerbaijan was chosen because it was believed that by creating the Republic of “Azerbaijan” it would eventually be one with the Azarbaijan of Iran. If a proper name could be applied to the present day Republic of “Azerbaijan”, the name Aran would be the correct choice”. ●
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:57 AM
Works: Studies in Caucasian History, Articles about p an-Turkism, Atropatena, etc.
Concerning Turkish history fabrication methods Minorsky remarks: “where there’s an unsolved question regarding ancient civilizations of the near east, Turks will immediately put their hands on it”.
Minorsky’s works also deal with the peoples of the region. He notes the strategic importance of Aghvank for the Sassanids and mentions the Iranian element present which accounts for the Iranian place names in the region such as Lizan (from Lahijan in northern Iran), Shirvan, etc. The Lahij were an Iranian ethnicity who immigrated to Shirvan from Gilan. Today the Lahij are known as Tats who live mainly south of Dagestan and around the Caspian in fake “Azerbaijan”.
From his history of Aran and Shirvan it’s interesting to point out that the region’s fall into the hands of Seljuk bandit king Alp Arslan’s general Savotekin was the result of it’s ruler, Fazl ibn Shavoor’s rebel son Fazloon’s deduction that he couldn’t beat the Seljuks and ceded it without fighting to the Turkish invaders, thus bringing about the end of the Shaddadian dynasty… This clearly shows that Aghvan’s usurpation from another usurper was a mere piece of cake for the ancestors of the Tatars of the Caucasus who chose the name “Azerbaijani” (later “Azeri”) for their artificially concocted “nation” at the end of 1930s. ●
Joseph Markwart (Marquart)
Works: Die Chronologie der alttürkischen Inschriften, Leipzig, 1898
Eranshahr nach der Geographie des ps. Moses Xorenatsi, Berlin, 1901
Marquart who is famous for his study of Iranian history believes: “The language of Atropatena (Atrpatakan) is the real Pahlavi language… The written Pahlavi is the same as that of Atropatena and is derived from Parthian (Ashkani) Pahlavi”.
Concerning the northern limit of Azarbaijan (the real) in times of the Sassanids when the Zintha fortress had been decided upon as the border between Atropatenean Media (Atrpatakan, real Azarbaijan) and Armenia in 298 AD, Markwart affirms that “as of 363 AD this border had remained unchanged. It was later in the Sassanid era when Atropatena (Atrpatakan, real Azarbaijan) expanded southeastward until the shores of Lake Urmia. Later still its borders widened and incorporated 12 regions of Pytakaran (Beylakan)”. As confirmed by Markwart, these regions were originally part of Armenia, thus, even what is known as Azarbaijan (the real) includes parts of historic Armenian territory.
It is important to note that unlike the pan-Turkist “Azeris” who stole the name of real Azarbaijan for a later annexation of the same to their fabricated state, an aim that to this day is apparent in all their falsified publications dealing with history, taught at their schools and “academic” establishments, no Armenian claims a square meter of present day Iranian territory. The points stated above are meant to show not only fake “Azerbaijan” that has usurped Armenian land to contrive their extension of Turkey has no legitimate right of demanding land from Armenia, its appetite for the real Azarbaijan is equally absurd in the light of these facts. ●
Kamilla Vasilyevna Trever (1892-1974)
Works: Ocherki po istorii I culture Kavkazkoi Albanii,… Moscow – Leningrad 1959
Reported by Josephus Flavius and other historians, the Alan invasion of the Caucasus and Iran in 72 AD and the massacres, destruction and plunder they inflicted, especially hit Armenia and Atrpatakan. According to Trever, the Caucasus Albanians (Aghvans) remained neutral, opened the way and allowed the Alans to pass through Aghvank. This is really bad for the “Azeris” who claim they are descendents of the Aghvans and that Aghvank and Atrpatakan were one and the same country, the homeland since the conception of the universe of the “Azeri” Turks, a “nation” that had to wait more than a thousand years before they aped the Alans and about two millennia before they were artificially created.
Trever asserts that the annexation of Pytakaran to Aghvank occurred after the peace treaty of Sassanid Persia and Rome in 387 when the two empires divided Armenia between them. Pavstos Buzand has also reported that after this division the Sassanids separated provinces from the already chopped up Armenia to weaken it further. It is doubtless that this treaty was the heaviest blow to Armenia after which she has not been able to recover to this day.
Explaining the disappearance of the Aghvans Trever writes: “as a result of the dispute between the Monophysite Armenian Church and Diophysite Chalcedonian Georgian Church in the seventh century, the Aghvans who followed the former started to use the Armenian alphabet and the followers of the latter employed the Georgian writing”, to the detriment and certain abandon of the Aghvan alphabet which was only created in the fifth century by the inventor of all of the three, Mesrop Mashtots.
That it was not because of cultural backwardness that the Aghvans failed to go on is confirmed by Trever who claims that the Iberians (Georgians) were not culturally superior to the Aghvans; on the contrary, they were probably behind them in certain branches.
Posted 23 April 2008 - 11:58 AM
Works: Istoriia Midii…, Moscow – Leningrad 1956
Diakonov defines the borders of Media limited to the Arax River and the Alborz mountain range in the north, the Kavir Desert (middle part of Iran) in the east and in the west and the south to the Zagross mountain range. Media consisted of two parts according to Diakonov: the Atropatenean Media from the Arax to Mount Alvand and the Greater Media between the two mentioned mountain ranges. Elsewhere it has been mentioned that Diakonov states that parts of Lesser Media known in the ancient times as Sangibutu used to be in Armenian kingdom of Van territory.
Diakonov confirms that after Cyrus conquered Media he did not abolish the Median kingdom, rather called himself the king of Media. He considers the Persian Achaemenid Empire the result of the mixing of Median and Persian tribes contrary to the absurd accusations of the Turks that the Persians invaded “Turkic” Media and massacred and subjugated them. He also demolishes the baseless claims of the Turks to the language of the Medes by declaring that the northwestern Median-Parthian and southwestern Old Persian shared the same root and were of Iranian origin.
Pulverizing yet another fictitious “Azeri” claim, the most preposterous of all, in appropriating the Iranian prophet Zoroaster, Diakonov excludes the possibility of Aghvank as the birthplace of Avesta because the languages of the region were not of Iranian origin. This leads us to another fundamental difference between the peoples of Atrpatakan and Aghvank, namely that of religion. Diakonov argues that Avesta could not have been written in any language other than of Iranian origin, because the names, expressions and philosophical concepts of Zoroastrianism were well known among Iranian ethnicities such as the Saka, Kharazmis, Sogdians, Bactrians and Persians whereas they were foreign to Elamite, Hurrians and Caucasian peoples.
He also believes that the Turanians were Aryan, they spoke languages belonging to the Iranian family, they were the same as the Saka (Scythians) and their land was Eastern Iran, that is, Central Asia.
As far as the desperate “Azeri” “academic” hallucinations to somehow find a Turkic origin in everything they want to lay their hands on Diakonov asserts: “We cannot assume that because certain words resemble others in different languages therefore they should also have the same meaning. This idea does not merit any credit”. ●
Nina Viktorovna Pigulevskaia (Pigulevskaya)
Works: Siriiskie istochniki VI v. o narodakh Kavkaza, V.D.I. N° 1, 1939
Siriiskie istochnik po istorii SSSR, Moscow – Leningrad 1941
Goroda Irana v rannem srednevekovie, Moscow – Leningrad 1956
The Soviet scholar Nina Pigulevskaia has researched the Assyrian sources for information concerning Aghvank. The sixth century AD author Zacharias Rhetor (Pseudo-Zacharius) mentions Armenia, Gurzan (Georgia) and Arran (Aghvank) and their peoples among the Christian countries of the Caucasus in his Ecclesiastic History - with translation of passages from Ptolemy.
A slightly different theory regarding the origin of the name of Atrpatakan is presented by Pigulevskaia which interestingly enough implies that the “pat” in Atrpatakan originally meant wall. This has been treated in the sections relevant to the origin and meaning of the term Azarbaijan. In the Assyrian chronicles of Karka Beit Sluk (Karkha Beit Slukh), present day Kirkuk, she finds information about Atrpatakan. The chronicles of the Median king Arbaces record that in the fifteenth year of the reign of [the Assyrian king] Sardon, the rebellion of Arbaces reached Hegmataneh. Arbaces built a huge wall (fortress) called Adurbad in Media. According to Pigulevskaia the name Adurbadegan/Adurbayegan (Atrpatakan) originated from Adurbad which was the title of Arbaces after who the region was named.
This does not change anything as far as the Iranian root of the meaning of the term, still, it enforces the theory that Atrpat/Atropat originally meant surrounded/protected by fire rather that protector of fire. The only divergence here is in the concept of the time of naming the region which according to Pigulevskaia goes back three or four centuries from the time of Alexander to the time of Sardon – Asarhaddon, according to Mösinger – in the seventh century BC.
According to Pigulevskaia the Median tribes who lived all over the Iranian plateau since ancient times were of Iranian origin and their language was a branch of Indo-European. After the advent of Alexander and the spreading of Hellenism, Pigulevskaia agrees that the Greek language did have some influence in the Parthian (Arsacid/ Ashkani) era but numerous manuscripts have survived in Pahlavi and Aramaic, among which the Avroman documents. She recognizes that by the time of the Sassanids, the Greek element had gradually disappeared.
Pigulevskaia confirms that the Sassanid king Shapur I did not annex the subject countries to Iran and called them Aniran. This is interesting in that the deep feelings of regret among Iranians for the “loss” of the so-called South Caucasus region to the Russians according to Golestan/Turkmenchai treaties is baseless, even more so when these countries are no more under Russian rule. ●
Posted 23 April 2008 - 12:01 PM
Work: Golestan e Eram
A native of the Caucasus, Bakikhanov has done extensive research on the history of Aghvank (Aran and Shirvan) and has presented the results under the title Golestan e Eram in Persian. He delineates the borders of Shirvan and confirms the River Kur as the southwestern limits of that region that separates it from Armenia and the Mughan plain (region to the southwest of the Caspian, south of Pytakaran). Bakikhanov admits that the right bank of the River Kur until the point it unites with the Arax River is part of Armenia. ●
Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi (? - 1853)
Work: Tarikh-e Qarabagh (History of Karabakh)
Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi’s work recording the events between 1747 and 1806 is written in the later years of his life starting in 1847, in Persian. He attests to a majority Armenian presence in Artsakh and reaffirms that in the quest for pasture for their cattle the Turkic nomadic tribes gradually appeared in Armenian populated Artsakh from the 17th century onward. He relates the murderer and rapist Panah’s escape (from Persian law) to Artsakh, his abusing of the chaotic circumstances after Nader Shah’s assassination and his appointing of himself as a khan in mid 18th century and he adds that Panah ruled over Artsakh except the five Armenian Melikdoms (Moluk Khamsa).
He considers Partaw, the once glorious capital of Aghvank part of the khanate of Karabakh, “and the foremost city in the province of Karabakh is the city and fortress of Bardha (Partaw H.) situated near the source of the Tartar River three farsakhs (6.24 km H.) away from the River Kur. And in the past, the inhabitants of that city were Armenians and other non-Muslims.”
Mirza Jamal Javanshir mentions the Moluk Khamsa of Artsakh: “before establishing the khanate of Karabakh, in the time of the Safavids the districts of Dizak, Varanda and Khachen and [the rest of] the five Armenian districts were under the Safavid king’s appointed governor… Each district was ruled by a melik.” ●
Igrar Aliev (Aliyev)
Works: Voprosi istorii Kavkazkoi Albanii, Baku, 1962,
Ocherk istorii Atropateni, Baku, 1989
Far from being pro-Armenian or anti-“Azeri”, this contemporary scholar from “Azerbaijan” is nevertheless a rare phenomenon. Naturally, all of his works haven’t been to the taste of “Azeri” fascists and incidents of burning of his books have occurred in fake “Azerbaijan”.
Igrar Aliev has done extensive research regarding the language and origins of Atrpatakan and considers the language of the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) Iranian without a shadow of a doubt.
He rejects the “Azeri” falsifiers who try very hard to attribute a Turkish origin to the name Azerbaijan (Atrpatakan, Aturpatekan, Aturpayegan, Atropatena) and mockingly compares their work to “coffee reading” (a type of fortune telling by describing the coffee patterns created by turning the cup of Turkish coffee upside down after drinking its content H.). He severely criticizes the Turkish “historians” who without any regard to linguistics, attribute Turkish origin to every word that remotely sounds like a word in Turkish. He expresses his anxiety that this sort of “reasoning” has found its way in “scientific” works in “Azerbaijan”.
While for every Armenian the suffix akan’s function is as clear as daylight and it’s used on daily basis to signify the attribution of something to something else: parskakan = Persian (Attributed to Persia), fransakan = French, angliakan = English, hndkakan = Indian, islamakan = Islamic, etc., etc., etc., after comparing Atrpatakan to the Parthian term Friapatikan from Friapatia and the Armenian term Anahitakan from Anahit, Aliev comes to the conclusion that Atrpatakan means attributed, named after Atropat, a fact that’s known to us for twenty three centuries as of now (2007).
Igrar Aliev rejects any Turkish origin for the name Azerbaijan: “The name Aturpatekan is a purely Iranian term”, Ocherk istorii Atropateni, p. 34. He also agrees with Dorn’s delineation of Albania’s (Aghvank) borders: Sarmatia to the northeast, Georgia and Alazan River (Olazanes) to the northwest, Armenia and the joining point of Kur and Arax to the southwest, south and southeast and the Caspian to the east.
Concerning the people of Atrpatakan, Igrar Aliev also calls them the Atropateni, i.e. the Atropateneans and not “Azeris”. ●
Posted 23 April 2008 - 12:03 PM
Strabo has reported the existence of 26 ethnicities with their own kingdoms and languages in Aghvank. The Islamic historians have also mentioned the diversity of the languages of the region. It seems that the Aghvans were the largest group of them all. Examining all the races and tribes who ever lived in Aghvank in detail is not the goal of the present subject, save it is noteworthy that scholars have counted Mukhoi (Mughan according to some), Casps, Gels (Gils), Leks, Gargars, Udins (Utis), Silvis, Lupins, Chilbs, Shichbs, Gardman, Olond, Lahij, Egersuans, Balasich, Khechmataks, Tavaspars, Poskhs, Tats, Talishes, Gluars, Gats, Budugs, Khinalugs, Khibivans, Khrsans, Kriz, Pukuans, among others as ethnicities who live or once lived in the region loosely referred to as Aghvank or Caucasus Albania. Interestingly not a single one of these has ever been linked in any way to Turks while a number of them such as Talishes, Tats and Lahijis are certainly of Iranian origin.
This enormous diversity is the main reason given for the extinction of the Aghvans. There was never a strong cultural, linguistic or religious link to bind all these ethnicities together as an accomplished nation-state. This also explains why even in the presence of an alphabet, conceived by the Armenian inventor of Armenian and Georgian alphabets, Mesrop Mashtots, the Aghvans were unable to withstand the calamities visited upon them in the shape of invasions of nomadic tribes starting with the Arabs and going on with the centuries long Turkic incursions. It is believed that parts of these were forced into Islam at the time of the Arabs and the rest assimilated with the Armenians.
When he was asked how the Aghvans who had a writing system did not survive, Bartold cited Kharazmis as another nation with written culture who also disappeared from the scene of history. Trever believes that the dispute between the followers of Armenian and Georgian Church in Aghvank in the seventh century drove the Aghvan alphabet, which was only created a couple of centuries before, into a corner. Each sect chose to use the writing system of the respective church instead of the Aghvan alphabet. The Arab invasion that followed shortly lessened the chances of the survival of the written Aghvan culture.
The relatively stable short periods of the Aranshahs had also to deal with the disputes between the kingdoms which led to the final dissolution of Aghvank as a nation and a state. Foreign occupiers constantly usurped the rule of the region. The Arab Mazidi dynasty who later called themselves Shirvanshahs, ruled over the northeastern part of Aghvank, which became known as Shirvan, from the latter 9th to the early 11th century. They were able to extend their rule over Shamakhi, Sheki and Qabalah. The Salarian rulers of Gilan took over Shirvan and Darband (Derbend) then came the Khazars and the Shaddadians. Later came the Turks and despite desperate attempts to muster up as much help as they could, the resistance of these local rulers could not hold back the Turkish hordes which finally imposed the Oghuz domination in the region that had already stopped being what was known as the Aghvanits Ashkhar, the land of the Aluanians. The Mongol invasions of later centuries (1220s AD) into the region followed by numerous other gangs of Turco-Tatar plunderers warped the ethnic picture of Aghvank to a higher degree, divided the region into khanates (little kingdoms ruled by a khan) and slowly but surely this ancient country ceased to exist.
A direct metamorphosis of all the Aghvan ethnicities into Turks is out of the question, thus, the claim that the Aghvans were the ancestors of the “Azeris” is nonsense. Turks should be asked how on earth all the Christian Aghvans suddenly became Turks while their church was closely related to that of the Armenians which even appointed the Catholicos of the Aghvans. It has already been noted that the application of the blanket fake term “Azeri” to all the inhabitants of fake “Azerbaijan”, not unlike the Kemalist genocidal law of calling all the inhabitants of Turkey Turks, was contrived to erase the identities of the ethnicities still living in the region. In both cases, the Turkic element was a minority but in this cunning manner and the discriminatory measures employed against these non-Turkic peoples - by clever abuse of the fertile poisonous Bolshevik ground in the “Azeri” case - such as depriving them of the study of their languages, the practice of their religions, destruction of their cultural heritage, has weakened them to the benefit of the Turks.
Posted 23 April 2008 - 12:08 PM
…said the defunct Communist party leader and Politburo member turned pan-Turkist, self-imposed President of the Republic of fake “Azerbaijan”, Heydar Aliev on 26 March 1998, as part of his “Decree of the President of “Azerbaijan” on the “Genocide!!!” of the “Azeris””. Needless to say he did not feel the need to produce a single proof for these fecal ejaculations. There’s just almost nothing wrong with this statement. In fact it would be perfectly correct if it started with “Azerbaijan” and ended with “Armenian land”. Turkish accounts of history are always 180 degrees opposite to the truth.
Throughout this exposé it has been clearly shown that the belligerent, deceitfully counterfeited pan-Turkist pseudo state of fake “Azerbaijan” has engaged in a fanatical, all encompassing history falsification and fairytale fabrication to justify its illegal presence and genocidal existence on behalf of the indigenous people of the southeastern flank of the Armenian Highland, wrongly renamed into “Southern Caucasus” by the Turkophile West or “Transcaucasus” by the not seldom double dealing Russians, just as in the case of bogus “Azerbaijan’s” progenitor where the western parts of Armenian Highland have been desecrated into “Eastern Anatolia”.
According to these murderous hordes turned “modern”, “democratic”, “secular” and “European”, an Armenia did not exist anywhere in Armenian Highland, because in the opposite case, their miserable existence and the disappearance of the indigenous people who lived there from the beginning of human history until the 20th century would raise questions. What else remains to be said of the eastern extension of Turkey whose name is fake, whose history is fake, whose geography is fake, whose nationality is fake, whose culture is fake, whose heritage is fake, whose genocide is fake, whose monuments are fake, whose ancestors are fake, whose royal dynasties are fake, whose heroes are fake, whose poets are fake, whose philosophers, etc., are fake?
For a sham like fake “Azerbaijan”, it is an extraordinary feat that this robber of other peoples’ name, history, geography, nationality, culture, heritage, genocide, monuments, ancestors, royal dynasties, heroes, poets, philosophers, etc., they have fooled the “civilized” world into accepting them as part of the UN, the Council of Europe and soon NATO, despite its bloody and expansionist, less than 90 years history (as of April 2008). This is an accomplishment never heard of in human history, exactly like a nation called “Azeri”.
Delving into treasures left for us and those to come, from the dawn of recorded history, by historians of any corner of the world who have written about the region one cannot conclude but:
- I. Never and in no historical period since the continents have accepted the present form and human societies have developed on this planet, has there ever existed a country called “Azerbaijan” north of the Arax River.
- II. Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) has always been to the south of the Arax River, even in those periods when the borders of Aghvank (Aran/Aluania), following the whims of the rulers of the region, sometimes reached the Arax. Generally the River Kur has been cited as the southern and western border of Aghvank with Armenia.
- III. Regardless of the borders of Aghvank (Aran/Aluania), it’s interesting that, like the ancient Greek and Roman authors, almost all Islamic historians and geographers have unequivocally considered Aghvank part of Armenia. This is proof that long before Turkic invasions, the Aghvans (people of Aran) had already assimilated or in the process of assimilation with the Armenians who they were historically related to.
- IV. Nowhere and in no historical document is there a word about a nation called “Azeri”. While the Persian dialect of the people of the real Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) has been called Pahlavi Azari or Irani Azari by some Islamic historians, never has the term ever been applied to a nation before the end of the 1930s, about two decades after the counterfeiting of fake “Azerbaijan”.
- V. A language derived from Turkish called “Azeri” does not exist. Turks of the Caucasus speak a dialect of Turkish.
- VI. As a result of Turkic domination in the region, the people of the real Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) south of the Arax River have gradually lost their native Pahlavi language, however, they are Turkish speaking Iranians and cannot be considered Turks. The obvious reason that backs this claim is that their affinity is to Iran and not to pan-Turkism.
- VII. The people of Aghvank (Aran/Aluania) living to the north and the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) living to the south of the Arax River have always been two separate, unrelated entities throughout history in racial, linguistic, religious, cultural and national terms.
- VIII. Fact III above alone pulverizes Heydar Aliev’s delirium, in case one would be so uninformed to believe the “Azeris” were the descendants of what they fallaciously and maliciously call “Albanians” (Aghvans), which is of course total baloney. Not only have they no idea of the language, customs, religion, history and culture of the people of Aghvank, they do not show an iota of affinity with this long extinct Christian nation and would exterminate them with sadistic pleasure had they survived until the twentieth century.
- IX. Their claim to be of so-called “Albanian” (Aghvan) descent faded totally when instead of keeping the name of the nation they pretend to be their origins, these leftovers of Oghuz invaders that lived under a tribal clan system up to and well after the counterfeiting of their fabricated “nation” called themselves “Azeri”, nonexistent in human history.
Probably no one says it more appropriately than the great 20th century Azarbaijani Iranian historian, Ahmad Kassravi Tabrizi (Kasravi), not without a dose of humor: “It’s astonishing that they have given the name Azerbaijan to what used to be Aran… Not that this would be to the detriment of Azarbayegan (the real Azarbaijan H.) but because our Arani brothers have totally turned their backs on their history and heritage at the dawn of their free and independent life. Such a stupefying phenomenon has no precedence in history.” (Ahmad Kassravi, The Unknown Kings, page 265.)
Posted 23 April 2008 - 12:10 PM
Sources and links for further research
From the Internet:
Artsakh, Legal Aspects (pdf)
Barbaric destruction of Jugha cemetery (video)
Destruction of Armenian Khachkars in Old Jugha (Nakhijevan)
Jugha cemetery brochure (pdf)
“Azeri” thugs disembowel pregnant Armenian women in Sumgait
Incomplete list of innocent victims of Sumgait
“Azeri” pogroms against Armenians
Maragha genocidal act
Maragha genocidal act 2
Gandzak (Kirovabad) - 1988: Facts and Events
The Slaughter of Gurgen Markarian
Khojaly hoax exposed
Khojaly hoax exposed 2
Khojaly hoax fact sheet (pdf)
Artsakh conflict Chronology of events and facts since 1988 (pdf)
The 20% “occupied “Azeri” territory”; myth and one million refugees lie exposed (pdf)
A-52-85 Letter from Permanent Mission of Armenia on Human Rights
From Nonsense to Nationhood: a Dangerous Trajectory of “Azerbaijani” Nationalism
Rewriting History: Recent Azeri Alterations of Primary Sources Dealing with Karabakh by George A. Bournoutian
Petition from the Armenians of Mountainous Karabakh to Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev
Wilson for Armenia, info concerning the Wilsonian Armenia
Azeri TV broadcasts full interview with Chechen commander
Azerbaijani Links to Osama Bin Laden
Global Market Brief: The Geopolitics of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan
Iran Chamber Society, mainly the History section
Alik Armenian Daily, Tehran
Peter Dale Scott, Al Qaeda, US Oil Companies, and Central Asia (pdf)
Translation of Avesta and Zoroastrian texts including the Kartir inscription
The Dejan Lučić; website
International Crisis Group members
Emma Bonino’s Turchia page
Zbigniew Brzezinski and U.S. - Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce, 1212 Potomac Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20007
Hijri and Gregorian dates converter
Posted 23 April 2008 - 12:11 PM
Russian Encyclopedia, 1890s edition printed in St. Petersburg and Leipzig
Soviet Encyclopedia, printed in Moscow in 1960
Movses Kaghankatouatsi, Patmutioun Aghuanits Ashkhari (History of Aghvank), written in the 7th century AD in Grabar, Old Armenian, available online in Grabar on Armenian Digital Library
Mikael Varandian, History of Dashnaktsoutioun, published in two volumes in Tehran, 1981; originally published in 1931
Raffi (Hagop Melik Hagopian 1835-1888), Khamsaii Melikoutiounner (in Armenian), also available in Persian, trans.: Ara Ter Stepanian, Pardis Danesh, Tehran, 2006
Pavstos Buzand, History of Armenia, written in the 5th century AD in Grabar, Old Armenian, also available in Persian, trans.: Garon Sarkissian, Nairi, Tehran, 2004
Zarevand (Zaven & Vartuhi Naalbandian), The Myth of Pan-Turanism (in Armenian), 1926, also published in Russian 1930, in English 1971, in French 1989, in Persian, Binesh/Parvin, 1990 (trans.: Mohammad Reza Zargar, from French)
Hrach Stepanian, An Introduction on Pan-Turkism (in Persian), Arax, Tehran, 2005
Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia (in 13 volumes), Yerevan, volumes published consecutively from 1974 to 1987 (several volumes were consulted)
Viscount Bryce, The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire 1915-16, Documents presented to Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (documents compiled by Arnold J. Toynbee) also available online
Henry I Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Garden City New York Doubleday, Page & Company, 1918
Archives of Alik Armenian Daily, Tehran, also available online
Luigi Villari, Fire and Sword in the Caucasus, London, T. Fisher Unwin, Adelphi Terrace, 1906 (available online on armenianhouse.org)
Christopher J. Walker, Armenia, the Survival of a Nation, 1980, revised edition first published in England in 1990, Chatham, Kent, ISBN 0-415-04684-X, also available online in HTML, Word Doc., and PDF formats
N. S. Sipaan, De halve maan boven Ararat, Stubeg, Hoogezand, Nederland, 1993
Ahmad Kassravi, The Unknown Kings (in Persian), Tehran, 1956
Ahmad Kassravi, Azari, the Ancient Language of Azarbaijan (in Persian), also available online in PDF format
Enayatollah Reza, Aran, from Ancient Times to the Beginning of Mongol Era (in Persian), Markaze Asnad va Tarikhe Diplomacy, Tehran, 2001
Enayatollah Reza, How Aran was Renamed into Azerbaijan (in Persian), available online in PDF format
Poems from Molavi (Masnavi), Nezami Ganjavi, Khaghani, mostly also available online in original Persian in HTML and PDF formats
For the ongoing policy of distorting facts on Christian population data and place name changes throughout the Ottoman era see Lusine Sahakyan’s 2007 book “The results of forceful Islamization of the Armenians in Ottoman Empire” in Armenian
Kemal Yalçin, Seninle Güler Yüregim, 2000 (in Turkish). Persian trans. from the 2003 Armenian trans. by Sedik Davitian, Siamak Book, Tehran, 2007
Theodore Karasik (Ph.D. Student, UCLA History Department), “Bakinskaia Guberniia Petroleum Industry During Early Industrialization, 1850-1880”, Summer 1997
Clifford Shack, The Armenian & Jewish Genocide Project that Eliminated the Ethnic Conflict Along the Oil Transport Route From Baku to the Suez Canal Region (available online)
Clifford Shack, The Rothschilds, Winston Churchill and the “Final Solution”, (available online)
Posted 23 April 2008 - 12:13 PM
Pliny, Natural Geography
Cornelius Tacitus, Historia
Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri
Dio Cassius, Roman History
Posted 23 April 2008 - 12:14 PM
Ahmad ibn Yahya Baladhuri, Futuh al Buldan (Conquests of Lands)
Abu Hanifa Ahmad ibn Dawood Dinwari, Akhbar ut Tawal
Ibn Wadih Ahmad ibn abu Ya’qub Ishaq ibn Jafar Isfahani, Tarikh Ya’qubi (Ya’qubi History), Al Buldan (Countries)
Abulqassem Ubeidullah ibn Abdullah ibn Khordadbeh, Al Masalek wal Mamalek (Roads and Countries)
Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir ibn Yazid ibn Khaled Amoli Tabari, Tarikh
Abu Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Faqih Hamadani, Mokhtasar al Buldan (Concise Book of Lands)
Abul Hassan Ali ibn Hussein Massoudi, Muruj udh Dhahb wa Ma’aden ul Jowhar (The Meadows of Gold and the Mines of Gems), At Tanbih wal Ashraf
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Farsi al Istakhri, Masalek wa Mamalek (Roads and Countries), Sovar al Aqalim (Maps of Lands)
Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Omar ibn Rosteh, Al A’laq an Nafiseh
Abulqassem Muhammad ibn Hawqal, Sourat ul Ardh (The Map of the Earth)
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Yussof Kharazmi (Khwarizmi), Mafatih ul Ulum
Sohrab (Ibn Srabion), Ajayeb ul Aqalim… (Wonders of Places…)
Anonymous, Hodud ul A’alam min al Mashreq ilal Maghreb
Shamseddin abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn abu Bakr Bana’a Shami Muqaddasi, Ahsan at Taghasim fi Ma’rifat al Aghalim
(The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions)
Abu Reyhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Biruni, Athar ul Baghieh, Al Jamahir
Emadeddin Ismail ibn Muhammad ibn Omar Abulfada (Abul Fida), Taqwim al Buldan
Qudamah ibn Jafar Katib Baghdadi, Kitab ul Kharaj
Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Miskuyeh Razi, Tajarib al Umam (Experiences of Nations)
Abu Ubeid Abdullah al Bakri Qurtubi (of Cordoba), Al Massalek wal Mamalek
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Muhammad Sharif Idrissi, Nuzhat ul Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al Afaq (The Delight for Who Desires to Journey through Different Horizons)
Muhammad ibn Mahmood ibn Ahmad Toosi, Aja’eb ul Makhluqat (Marvels of Creatures)
Izzeddin Ali ibn Athir, Al Kamel fit Tarikh (Complete History)
Abu Abdullah Yaqut ibn Abdullah Hamawi, Mo’jam al Buldan (Book of Countries)
Zachariah Emadeddin ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmood Qazvini, Athar al Bilad wa Akhbar al Ibad (Vestiges of Countries and Information on Men)
Zineddin Ibn Hamdollah Mostowfi Qazvini, Nuzhat ul Qulub (The Delight of Hearts)
Abu Zayd Abdurrahman ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldun
Posted 23 April 2008 - 12:16 PM
Vasili Vladimirovich Bartold, Sochineniia Moscow from 1963 to 1977
Vladimir Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian History, Articles about pan-Turkism, Atropatena
Joseph Markwart (Marquart), Die Chronologie der alttürkischen Inschriften, Leipzig, 1898, Eranshahr nach der Geographie des ps. Moses Xorenatsi, Berlin, 1901
Kamilla Vasilyevna Trever, Ocherki po istorii I culture Kavkazkoi Albanii,… Moscow – Leningrad 1959
Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov, Istoriia Midii…, Moscow – Leningrad 1956
Nina Viktorovna Pigulevskaia (Pigulevskaya), Siriiskie istochniki VI v. o narodakh Kavkaza, V.D.I. N° 1, 1939, Siriiskie istochnik po istorii SSSR, Moscow – Leningrad 1941, Goroda Irana v rannem srednevekovie, Moscow – Leningrad 1956
Abbasghuli Agha Bakikhanov, Golestan e Eram
Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi, Tarikh-e Qarabagh (History of Karabakh)
Igrar Aliev (Aliyev), Voprosi istorii Kavkazkoi Albanii, Baku, 1962, Ocherk istorii Atropateni, Baku, 1989
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