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Armenian Genocide Commemorations List

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#1741 Yervant1


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Posted 16 October 2018 - 10:20 AM

Ahval News
Oct 15 2018
Turkey pays the price for denying the Armenian genocide

Turkey’s release of American evangelical pastor Andrew Brunson after a u-turn by the Ankara government provides another example of Turkish society’s high tolerance for hypocrisy and fabrication by the media and political leaders.

However, this pattern of denial of wrongdoing by the Turkish state and state-controlled media goes all the way back to the cover-up of the Armenian genocide in eastern Anatolia in 1915. The planning, execution, cover-up, and continued denial of this grave crime has set the tone for the rhetoric of the Turkish state and its media organs when faced with issues such as the Kurdish question, the disappearance of activists and intellectuals, and bombings and assassinations.

The auditorium at McGill University, nestled in the foothills of Mt. Royal in Montreal, was filled to the brim last week. The crowd mostly consisted of young members of the Armenian community. They have assembled to hear Turkish academic Taner Akçam, in Montreal to present his book “Killing Orders: Talat Pasha’s Telegrams and the Armenian Genocide”.

Talat Pasha was one of a triumvirate that ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War One and ordered the mass killing and deportations of Armenian in Anatolia.

The subject at hand was not whether or not what the Armenians went through constitutes genocide. Anyone who has kept a close eye on Turkey over the last ten years knows that one does not have to do archival research day in and day out as Akçam has in order to prove that it was.

That is because the murders and crimes of today that we see covered up by the state, committed before the public’s very eyes, bear witness as a poor imitation of what was done to the Armenians. We see false testimony produced in order to ensure the continuity of the state, and this very same testimony retracted when international pressure mounts. We are not the only ones who can see this. As the Brunson case shows, the United States and the rest of the world are watching.

It is enough to look at the actions of those with such a blatantly dishonest mentality. It is no longer necessary to search the archives to understand what was done in 1915.

It is enough to look to those who killed university student Kemal Kurkut in the middle of the street in Diyarbakır in 2017; or Uğur Kurt, who was killed while attending a funeral in Istanbul in 2014; the 33 youths killed in the bombing at Suruç in 2015; or the 109 people murdered in Ankara that same year.

It is enough to remember the Armenian politicians and intellectuals rounded up on April 24, 1915, and murdered that July on Talat Pasha’s orders, or to look to the Kurdish politicians and intellectuals in prison over a century later.

The only difference is that today’s world will not allow a final solution like genocide, at least it is hard right under Europe’s nose and the price is steep.

Returning to Akçam’s book and his presentation.

The Armenian genocide is a fact that has been officially accepted by many countries, but Turkey remains in denial. Those who say that Turkey’s judicial system is independent are the same people who deny the Armenian genocide.

Turkish society has no laymen’s view of the Armenian genocide; the official view is accepted without question. The official view is simple and can be summarised as: The independent Turkish judiciary has set Brunson free, no one can pressure Turkey, and those who fight for the nation are honourable. For that reason, there was no organised plan to kill Armenians. Their deaths were merely the coincidental results of wartime.

Those who create and expound this official view call any proof fabricated, while at the same time fabricating their own evidence. One of the most important pieces of evidence is that published by Aram Andonian in 1921. It is an official telegraph from the memoirs of Naim Efendi, an Ottoman civil servant.

Turkey’s government and those in academia who support them have claimed for years that this memoir was falsified or produced by Armenians.

Akçam’s meticulous research proves there was indeed an Ottoman bureaucrat named Naim Efendi and provides the relevant sources. It also proves that Naim Efendi wrote and published his memoir. Through his research, Akçam offers positive proof that in 1915, while Talat Pasha was planning the Armenian Genocide, he had also begun to try to cover up its traces.

Akçam presents Ottoman documents that show those who have offered critiques of the documents as false, or wrote their theses on the cryptographic techniques therein were wrong or purely speculative. Akçam has done this with documents from the many volumes found in the archives of the military general staff.

Those who stand against the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) cannot see that the lawlessness they are experiencing in Turkey today has its roots in the Armenian genocide. They do not seem to understand that true democracy and rule of law cannot be founded on lies and denial.

They take delight in the fact that the Brunson case showed the supposedly independent judiciary was not independent and that Erdoğan was unable to stand up to the United States. They are enraged by the lies that the pro-government media publishes today, but they never consider that these newspapers, which have always been connected to the government, have told even graver lies; beginning with the Armenian genocide, continuing with the Kurdish question, all the way up to the July 2016 coup attempt.

When Erdoğan says that Turkey is a state ruled by law and that the judiciary is independent, they laugh. But when he says his ancestors never committed genocide and the Armenian genocide never happened, they applaud.

I don’t know what name psychology would call this phenomenon, but it is clearly not a healthy state of mind. Not confronting the truth corrodes democracy, the law and morality.

It is enough to look at the German government and society, which confronted the Holocaust, with Turkey, which was founded on denial, to see the consequences.



#1742 Yervant1


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Posted 25 October 2018 - 09:11 AM

MediaMax, Armenia
Oct 24 2018
Armenian president is ready to dialogue with Erdogan
Photo: Photolure
Yerevan/Mediamax/. Armenian President Armen Sarkissian is ready to dialogue with his Turkish counterpart Recep Tayyip Erdogan, he said in the interview to Swiss public television channel RTS.
Citing his Christian beliefs, Armen Sarkissian said that forgiveness is possible, but “recognition must come first”.
According to the Armenian President, the recognition will have a broader historical scope because the Armenian Genocide was “the first genocide of the 20th century”.
“Firstly, I would tell Mr. Erdogan: “Good morning, Mr. President. I believe we have an issue to discuss together. You are the President of Turkey and I am the President of Armenia. My family, my ancestors were from Erzrum, Van and Bitlis. My family has long history. Why don’t we talk about the relations between Turkey and Armenia and about our personal stories? We have to discuss not only the past, but also the future - the future of your children and mine, your grandchildren and mine, and our nations,” said Armen Sarkissian.

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Posted 26 October 2018 - 10:39 AM

The Exponent: University of Wisconsin - Platteville
October 24, 2018 Wednesday
History Club lecture series: The Armenian genocide
by: Alan Russell
The second lecture in the History Club's series on genocide was held on Wednesday, October 17th, detailing the Armenian genocide and the importance of its remembrance. Dr. Adam Stanley, professor and chair of the history department, described the events of the Armenian genocide, as well as the amnesia and silence that followed it.
Stanley began by describing the events that took place leading up to the Armenian genocide.  The Ottoman Empire held all of modern day Turkey, as well as much of the northern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.  Furthermore, a triumvirate of senior Ottoman officials nicknamed the "three pashas" effectively ruled the empire, and the events that would lead to WWI were unfolding.
The pashas were Turkish nationalists that had grand ideas for the future of the Ottoman Empire. These ideas pointedly did not include Armenians.  There had already been a build-up of aggression against Armenians from Turkish nationals, so the pashas had no trouble convincing the public that Armenians were to blame for economic strife within the Empire.
This aggression came to a head when the pashas ordered that all able-bodied Armenian men be rounded up and killed, in an attempt to minimize the resistance to the genocide that was about to take place.  The Ottoman government later rounded up the remaining Armenians in the Empire, and forced them on what historians are now calling death marches.
Needless to say, a vast number of Armenian people died, and because of the attention to western Europe during and before WWI, those that knew about the genocide taking place were either unable or unwilling to stop it.  Armin Wegner, a German soldier that witnessed the genocide as it was happening, lobbied his government to step in, but they refused.  So, in an effort to see some justice for the Armenian people, he documented the events by taking photos of the atrocities, at great personal risk.  Other foreigners tried to help as well.  One man even publishing a book about it while it was still taking place, but no one was able to successfully prevent the slaughtering of a people.
Stanley then spoke about how these mass killings were immediately, almost enigmatically, forgotten by history.  Turks denied that it took place, and Armenians never spoke out about it, either in fear of punishment or to allow themselves to move on.
Stanley argued that this mass "amnesia" caused another problem, beyond the atrocities that took place.
"When something like this can be so easily forgotten, who can stop someone else from doing the same thing?" Stanley said.
The point of his argument is that someone else did do the same thing, during WWII.  The Third Reich enlisted this idea that horrible acts can easily be lost to history, with Adolf Hitler even referring to the Armenian genocide when discussing his invasion of Poland.
That idea subsequently backfired, as the Holocaust became globally remembered, even as many events like the Armenian genocide are forgotten.  But the point made then still stands today.
"Many of these events are forgotten.  The Holocaust is the exception; remembering something is the anomaly," Stanley said.
The History club will continue their lecture series with another speaker on Wednesday, November 14th, in Doudna Hall.

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Posted 01 December 2018 - 12:45 PM

13:53 | November 29 2018
    Exhibition dedicated to memory of Armenian Genocide victims opened in Swedish Parliament
| Views: 19

An exhibition titled “The Armenian Genocide and the Scandinavian reaction” opened in the Parliament of Sweden on November 27.

The temporary exhibition has been prepared in 2011 by the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Foundation and then was provided to the Union of Armenian Associations in Sweden.

The exhibition is dedicated to the memory of the Genocide victims, the International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime, as well as the 70th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

The opening ceremony of the exhibition was attended by parliamentarians, ambassadors, diplomats accredited in Stockholm, as well as Swedish public figures and media representatives.

The exhibition will be open until December 20.


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Posted 04 December 2018 - 10:13 AM

Dec 3 2018
Turkish historian launches digital archive documenting Armenian genocide



Turkish historian Taner Akçam, a professor of Armenian genocide studies at Clark University in Massachusetts, has launched a digital archive of evidence collected by an Armenian genocide survivor  which documents the atrocities of 1915.

Akçam, the Robert Aram and Marianne Kaloosdian and Stephen and Marian Mugar Professor in Armenian Genocide Studies at Clark University’s Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, worked with Turkish experts and graduate students on a digital repository comprised of  1915 Armenian genocide survivor and Krikor Guerguerian’s collection, for which he travelled the world to collect evidence.

Turkey has never officially acknowledged that events leading to the death of hundreds of thousands of Armenians starting in 1915 constitute a genocide, though many other countries do.

The Krikor Guerguerian Archive (https://wordpress.clarku.edu/guerguerianarchive/ ) contains thousands of original Ottoman documents and Guerguerian’s unpublished writings, including the handwritten memoirs of Naim Bey, an Ottoman bureaucrat stationed in Aleppo who actively participated in the deportation and massacres of Armenians and documents from the Jerusalem Armenian Patriarchate containing first-hand information about the Armenian genocide.

Ciphered telegrams sent by the Ottoman Interior Minister Talat Pasha, seen by many as the principal architect of the Armenian Genocide, as well as army commanders, and the chief of the government’s paramilitary to governors throughout the Empire are among the most noteworthy materials of the archive.

“Access to these materials has the potential to change scholarly and political discourse as well as to destroy Turkish denial,” wrote Professor Akçam stressing that he sees it as his duty to make the ‘’evidence accessible for the world to see.’’

Sixty-five year old Akçam is widely regarded and criticised as one of the first Turkish academics to openly acknowledge and discuss the events of 1915 as genocide committed by the Turkish Ottoman government.  


#1746 Yervant1


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Posted 04 December 2018 - 10:18 AM

News.am, Armenia
Dec 3 2018
Armenian Genocide issue included in Australian parliament debate
15:57, 03.12.2018

The Armenian National Committee of Australia (ANC-AU) reports that a motion honouring the 70th anniversary of the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide (UN Genocide Convention) will be debated by Australia's House of Representatives on Monday, 3rd December 2018.

The private member's motion, which will be moved by Member for Goldstein Tim Wilson – who is of Armenian ancestry –  calls on the House of Representatives to acknowledge “the need for eternal vigilance of all countries, including Australia, to act to acknowledge past genocides as essential to stopping future genocides”.

The motion honours the author of the UN Genocide Convention, Dr. Raphael Lemkin, noting that the Armenian Genocide and Jewish Holocaust were motivating factors for his coining of a legal term for race-based mass killings. The motion states: "[The House] honours the primary initiator and author of the United Nations Genocide Convention, Dr Raphael Lemkin, a lawyer of Polish-Jewish descent, who coined the word 'genocide', informed by his study of the systematic extermination of the Armenians during World War I and the Jews during World War II."

The motion also acknowledges Australia's significant role in the UN's adoption of the motion 70 years ago, on 9th December, 1948. As is typical with private members' motions, this bill will be debated by a selection of government and non-government Members of Parliament without going to a vote.

The majority's view of the debate will reflect the will of Australia's House of Representatives, explained ANC-AU Executive Director, Haig Kayserian.

“Australia was instrumental in the adoption of the UN Genocide Convention and ratified it in 1949, yet it still needs to get on the right side of history by recognising the Armenian Genocide and continue what is a proud tradition of standing up for such important human rights issues,” said Kayserian.

"A positive outcome in the debate of this motion will ensure the House of Representatives recognises that there is no more room for word games. This motion clearly articulates that the word Genocide and what happened to the Armenians are undeniably linked since the creation of the word itself."

This is the second motion to be debated in 2018, after the House of Representatives unanimously debated in favour of a bill recognising Australia's first major international humanitarian relief effort to aid survivors of the Genocide of Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians on 25th June, 2018.


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Posted 11 December 2018 - 10:16 AM

Panorama, Armenia
Dec 10 2018
Armenian president: 103 years after the Genocide, we have proved to the world that light and good will prevail


Armenian President Armen Sarkissian participated today at the Third Global Forum Against the Crime of Genocide which is dedicated to the issues of prevention through education.

In his welcoming remarks, after wishing the participants of the international forum “bari luys” in Armenian, President Sarkissian noted that in Armenian, “bari lyus” means not only “good morning” but also “good” or “kind light”, and throughout the human history we have had times when light prevailed but also the occurrences of evil.

The full text of the president’s speech released by the presidential office runs as follows:

“The fight between light and darkness is current even today. This Forum is meant to fight against that very darkness and evil. There are multiple components which the evil manifests itself through: the way we treat our beloved home, our planet Earth, rights of the people of different race, sexual orientation, or religion. Unfortunately, evil is not always defeated.

In the 21st century, in the epicenter of very rapidly changing events, everything that is taking place on this planet, whether good or bad, spreads instantly, forms roots, and acquires followers. I will not call it revolution, industrial revolution. Now we are entering other era which is rather a rapid evolution. The greatest evil of that era is the crime of genocide which, unfortunately, also finds a breeding ground. Obviously, it will not cease to exist if don’t fight against it.

Before turning to the lighter side, I would like to talk about this Forum. Probably, there are two or three places in the world where such a forum can be held. Regrettably, Armenia is one of them because Armenians, as a nation, suffered the pain of genocide.

There are two places in Armenia which symbolize those events: The first is the Genocide Memorial and Museum, the second – is this very place, the Matenadaran. When I compare these two sites, they come out as two temples – one as a memorial to the martyrs, the other – the Matenadaran, symbolized light, the place where we assert - never again. The Matenadaran proves that light eventually conquers pain and darkness. I am confident that light and good will prevail. This is also a place where the memories of the Genocide are profound.

Genocide is not only an organized crime which is meant to annihilate a nation, an ethnic group, people who are different. This is an act against tolerance meant to eliminate history, culture, arts, and knowledge. Thus, it’s a much greater calamity, a greater and a much more vicious crime than just a murder of the people. At the same time, the Matenadaran is the place which states “do whatever you want, you will not erase.” It is special also from the human history point of view.

There are thousands stories about the Armenian women who fleeing from the Genocide had taken with them the most precious thing – the Book. My grandmother too, who was from a prosperous family in the Ottoman Empire, fleeing from the Genocide had not taken anything, even clothing or jewelry, but took the most precious things – her son and the Bible.

Painfully, she had lost her son on the way to Etchmiadzin but managed to bring the Holy Bible with her. It exists even today and contains not only 450 years of history but also the memories of the child lost, the child who never grew up, never came to age, never brought his talent to arts, culture, business, politics, never had children and grandchildren. It’s a living memory and a temple of light. The Armenian Genocide started 103 years ago, and today we remember all those who had lost their lives, homes, friends, families, children.

One hundred three years later we proved to the entire world that light and good prevail, and the Republic of Armenia, the Armenian people is the proof of it. We are a small people but a global nation. The whole world knows Armenians as hardworking, honest, very patriotic people, who live in different countries and are good citizens of that countries, work for success of that countries. Deep inside they nurture that pain but, at the same time, they have dignity and pride – we can defeat the evil. This building is a proof of it, it safeguards important assets, assets which were meant to be destroyed, which were targeted but survived - history, culture, legacy, love, religion, God, and humanity.

I greet you all in Armenia, welcome to our nation which was able to overcome the most gruesome, the cruelest crime ever – the crime of genocide.

Armenia is with you, and all over the world Armenians are fighting against evil in the name of light.”


#1748 Yervant1


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Posted 14 December 2018 - 11:15 AM

AG - Assemblies of God 
Dec 6 2018

This Week in AG History -- Dec. 4, 1915 

by  DARRIN J. RODGERS on December 6, 2018


An estimated 800,000 to 1,500,000 ethnic Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire (present day Turkey) were systematically rounded up and killed by Ottoman authorities between the years 1915 and 1918. The Armenian Genocide, as it came to be known, is the second-most studied case of genocide, following the Jewish Holocaust.

Newspapers around the world reported on the suffering endured by the mostly Christian Armenians. Right in the midst of the conflict was Maria A. Gerber (1858-1917), an early Pentecostal missionary who had established an orphanage in Turkey for Armenian victims.

Gerber was born in Switzerland, where she was raised with 11 siblings by Mennonite parents. As a child, she did not have an interest in spiritual things, because she saw her mother weep when she read her Bible. She thought that Scripture must be the cause of sadness.

Gerber was a carefree child and loved to sing and dance. But, at age 12, she was stricken with multiple ailments, including rheumatic fever, heart trouble, tuberculosis, and dropsy. The doctor’s prognosis was not good — Gerber only had a short time to live.

Fear gripped Gerber’s heart. She had never committed her life to the Lord. She knew that if she died, she would not go to heaven. Gerber cried out, “Jesus, I want you to save me from my sins.” Immediately, she felt peace deep inside her soul. She was ready to die.

But God had other plans for the young girl. Gerber quickly recovered from her incurable illness, much to everyone’s surprise. Gerber’s mother had been so confident that her daughter was on death’s doorstep that she had already given away all of her clothing. Her mother scrounged around and found clothes for Gerber.

Gerber shared her testimony of salvation and healing at school and in surrounding villages. She found her calling. She read Matthew 28:18 and sensed that verse was meant for her: “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me [Jesus]. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations…”

Gerber’s faith deepened as she blossomed into a young woman. She received training as a nurse, but in her heart she wanted to become a missionary. In 1889 a remarkable revival featuring healing and speaking in tongues came to her town in Switzerland. In her 1917 autobiography, Passed Experiences, Present Conditions, Hope for the Future, Gerber recounted the rapturous praise and numerous miracles that occurred in that early Swiss revival.

The young nurse wanted training for missions work and, in 1891, she headed for Chicago, where she attended Moody Bible Institute. By the mid-1890s, she heard about massacres of Armenian Christians that were occurring in the Ottoman Empire. Gerber and a friend, Rose Lambert, felt God calling them to minister to the Armenian widows and orphans.

Gerber and Lambert arrived in Turkey in 1898 and began working with the besieged Armenians. They began caring for orphans and purchased camel loads of cotton for widows to make garments for the orphans and for sale. Donors from America and Europe began supporting these two audacious women who had ventured into very dangerous territory to do the Lord’s work.

Gerber, in particular, found support among wealthy German Mennonites who lived in Russia. In 1904, they funded the construction of a series of large buildings to house hundreds of orphans and widows. Zion Orphans’ Home, located near Caesarea, became a hub of relief work and ministry in central Turkey. When persecution of Armenians intensified in 1915, resulting in the extermination of most Christian Armenians from Turkey, Zion Orphans’ Home was ready to help those in distress.

Gerber identified with the emerging Pentecostal movement as early as 1910. This should not be surprising, as she had experienced her own Pentecost 21 years earlier. The Assemblies of God supported her missions efforts, and numerous letters by Gerber were published in the Pentecostal Evangel. Assemblies of God leader D. W. Kerr, in the foreword to Gerber’s 1917 autobiography, wrote that he had known Gerber for 26 years and that her story will encourage readers “to greater self-denial and a deeper surrender.”

Gerber suffered a stroke and passed away on Dec. 6, 1917. Gerber’s obituary, published in the Pentecostal Evangel, stated that she was known as “the angel of mercy to the downtrodden Armenians.”

It would have been easy for Gerber to ignore the persecution of Armenians. The massacres were on the other side of the world. She could have stayed safe in America or in Europe. But Gerber followed God’s call and spent almost 20 years ministering to refugees who faced persecution and death. Few people today remember her name. But according to early Assemblies of God leaders, Maria Gerber personified what it meant to be Pentecostal.


#1749 Yervant1


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Posted 14 December 2018 - 11:27 AM

New Jersey Hills / Observer Tribune, NJ
Dec 13 2018
LETTER: Schooley's Mountain Scout learns about Armenian holocaust             



EDITOR: Good afternoon. My name is Nicholas Fleming, and I am a 17 year old Boy Scout at Troop 236, Schooleys Mountain.

For one of my communications merit badge, I have the opportunity to compose a letter to an editor an a local newspaper like those that are a part of New Jersey Hills Media Group. So I have.

I wrote this as an opinion piece inspired by my experience in world history class last year, learning about various significant world events in the early 20th century. After learning about the Armenian Genocide, which I describe below, I was shocked that it was still not recognized as a legitimate genocide by the U.S., considering that it meets all of the U.N. guidelines for a genocide.

After doing some digging, I was further surprised by the Turkish government, which succeeded the Ottoman empire’s government, denies this tragedy.

World War One, 1915. France, Britain, Germany and newcomers to the Great War, the Ottomans, were all heavily entrenched. While the idea that the war would be over by Christmas had dissipated, the new concept of "total war," whereby the government effectively takes control of the homefront in order to optimize the efficiency of the war machine, was put into practice.

Total war affords the government more control and leeway in domestic goings on and many would say that they were abused in Ottoman relations to their Armenian subjects. That is not to say that conflict between Armenians and Ottomans was an unexpected phenomenon; as a Christian minority in an Islamic Caliphate, there was bound to be discrimination.

There had even been massacres of Armenians before to the order of hundreds of thousands by the Ottomans in the 1890s and a smaller massacre in 1904, but massacres on the scale of 1915 has only been surpassed once in recent history: the holocaust of World War II during when 6 million Jews perished at the hands of Nazis who used the Armenian genocide as a template.

Damage to the Armenians was devastating; if the number of people killed in the Ottoman massacre of Armenians were to be killed in New Jersey, it would be the equivalent of killing about 2.24 out of every 10 people, nearly a fourth of the total population of New Jersey.

The percentage of the Armenian population killed was far greater, however. In fact, the scale of the slaughter of Armenians was so great that a new word had to be invented to encompass it: genocide. The United Nations defines Genocide as "Any of the following acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, such as: (a) killing members of the group, (B) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group, © deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical suffering:.


For more please visit https://nzhistory.go...nians-suffering, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, updated Jan. 26, 2015; documenting numbers of victims of the Holocaust and Nazi persecution, see https://www.ushmm.or...duleId=10008193; and https://www.congress...06hres155ih.pdf.


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Posted 01 January 2019 - 11:12 AM

The Times of Israel
Dec 31 2018
Armenian capital honors Holocaust survivor who coined the term ‘genocide’ Raphael Lemkin helped draft the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, after years of campaigning for measure
By Cnaan Liphshiz 31 December 2018, 10:16 pm


JTA — Armenia’s capital named a street for Raphael Lemkin, the Jewish lawyer who coined the term genocide.

The deputy mayor of Yerevan, Sergey Harutunyan, said during the ceremony earlier this month that Lemkin’s legacy had a “serious impact” on world history, the Armenrpess agency reported from the December 11 ceremony.


Lemkin was born in what is today Belarus to a Polish-Jewish family. He fled the Nazis in 1941 to the United States.

As a jurist, he helped draft the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, for which he had campaigned for years.

The slaughter of thousands of Armenian civilians by Turkish troops during World War I had an early and powerful influence on Lemkin, who was born in 1900.  Upon studying it, he wrote, ”my worries about the murder of the innocent became more meaningful to me. I didn’t know all the answers but I felt that a law against this type of racial or religious murder must be adopted by the world.”

Lemkin was fluent in nine languages and was able to read 14. His first published book was a 1926 translation of the Chaim Nachman Bialik novella “Noach and Marynka” from Hebrew into Polish.

He died in 1959.

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