Jump to content


Photo

19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical


  • Please log in to reply
16 replies to this topic

#1 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 31 July 2015 - 12:45 PM

17:47 31/07/2015 » SOCIETY

19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan

The first edition (1881) of “The Collection of the Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” started publication of the results of the Caucasus region research with an article dedicated to Yerevan. According to it, the references about the Armenian city Yerevan date back to the 7th century, while the Turkic and Persian peoples appeared in the city only in the 15th century. The article was written by Stepan Pavlovich Zelinski, a teacher of preparatory classes in the Erivan progymnasium. 

The article starts with the discussion and analysis of the etymology of the name of the city, Erivan. The author scrupulously presents all the versions, from urban legends to data based on historical documents and sources. According to the Armenian legend, having a look from the top of Ararat, the first thing that Noah saw, were Erivan uplands that had come out of the water earlier than the other things. He said, “Erevum e” (“I can see it”). The “Tatar” version links the name of the city Yerevan to the word “aya-ravan,” meaning “it flows” in Persian. 

The author also refers to sources where Yerevan was first mentioned. He writes, “The oldest pieces of information about Erivan date back to the second half of the 7th century AD when a war was underway, according to Catholicos Ohannes.” In a letter, the Catholicos writes that there was a war in the city of Erivan between 661 and 665, during Patriarch Anastas. 

As earlier references about Yerevan, the author cites the Armenian historians of the early 7th century, Movses Khorenatsi and Sebeos. Citing the latter, Zelinski writes, “During the reign of the Greek King Constantine and the Persian Hazkert, the Ishmaelites came and gathered in Yerevan after destroying several places, and sieged a fortress here but could not take it.”

Further, reviewing various versions on the origin of the toponym of Yerevan, Zelinski concludes that “… there can be no doubt that Erivan existed even before the 7th century for in 661 it was already called a city” and that “there already existed a fortress in Erivan by 635-638.”

Summing up the excursus of the “pre-Turkic” and “pre-Persian” history of the city, the author notes, “it is for certain that Erivan was under the Armenians’ control till 1441, and since then it became, as it were, a toy in the hands of the Persians and Turks.”
“The Collection of the Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history, life, way of life and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire. 
The primary purpose of publishing “The Collection” was to “find means” to contribute to the spiritual life of the teachers and prevent their degradation. “Without such a support, even a competent and sufficiently educated young teacher can gradually, without even noticing it, be subjected to the influence of the surroundings and finally turn into a ‘teacher-craftsman’ who does not differ from the villagers around him but for his knowledge of this or that reading and writing,” the foreword of “The Collection” reads.

To that end, a decision was made to assign the teachers to carry out extra researches, that is, to make a comprehensive research of the region each teacher lived and worked in. 

In addition, these activities would serve “as a fence for the teachers from apathy, erroneous directions and interests in harmful and extraneous inspirations” and “keep them on the level of the education they got and support their further self-perfection.” It can also result in a practical benefit: it will create an objective description of the region and become a source of huge information for the description of the region. A fortiori, there was already a similar positive experience of gathering materials about Kuban and Stavropol in 1879.

As a help, a list of questions of interest is offered to the researchers, including history, economics, statistics, demography, ethnography of the settlements under research, as well as bibliography and archive documents on which the research should be based.
 

Source: Panorama.am



#2 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 03 August 2015 - 09:48 AM

SCIENTIFIC EDITION OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE: NAKHIJEVAN WAS PROMINENT ARMENIAN CITY FOUNDED IN C16 BC

13:36 03/08/2015 Â" SOCIETY

In the second edition for the year 1881 of the project "The Collection
of the Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,"
Nakhijevan city school inspector K.A. Nikitin published an extensive
research titled "Nakhijevan: Biblical and legendary tales, historical
data and ancient monuments."

"In the ancient times, the Armenians called the city Nakhijevan by
the name 'Nakhjavan,' and the Greeks 'Naksuana.' It was the main city
in Nakhijevan district of Vaspurakan province in ancient Armenia.

'Nakhijevan' is an Armenian word - 'Õ¶Õ¡Õ­Õ"Õ"O~GÕ¡Õ¶' - that has the
meaning 'first settlement, first shelter'," this is how the author
explains the origin of the toponym Nakhijevan.

Referencing Armenian (Stepanos Orbelian, Lazar Jagrinski) and Persian
(geographer Hamdudlah Ghazvini) sources, the author writes that the
city of Nakhijevan was founded in 1539 BC, and was "the most splendid
place on the Earth" with about 150 thousand population that "stood
out with wealth and carried out extensive trade operations." However,
in 633 BC, the Scythians plundered the city.

The population of the city grew under the Armenian King Tigranes
the Great who resettled here Armenians from the other regions of
the country, as well as Mede captives. However, the author points
that Nakhijevan's prosperity was not constant as it was repeatedly
destroyed, and the inhabitants had to rebuild it again. "Such
vicissitudes of fate contributed to the fall of Nakhijevan. It went
from one ruler to the other, and the inhabitants suffered lootings,
murders, destructions, were taken into captivity and slavery," the
author writes.

The reason was that the city was situated on the "Great World Route"
lying on the way of Alexander of Macedon, Attila the Hun, Genghis
Khan and Tamerlane. The city finally turned into a heap of ruins in
1673 by the Iranian Nader Shah. After that, Nakhijevan revived again,
yet it could not restore its former greatness.

As for the ancient monuments, the author first of all singles out the
artifacts, namely the axes and stone wedges found in the ancient salt
mines, the Armenian monastery Karmir Vank, as well as the remains of
fortress walls, and mosques built under Persian rule.

Further, the author describes the times closer to the moment of his
writing. In particular, he writes about the construction of the first
water-pipe. "A ditch flows through the midst of Nakhijevan drawing
water from the river and irrigating all tilled soils, gardens and
orchards in the city. However, the water in the ditch is not sufficient
for the city because the inhabitants of the villages nearby also
take it. In addition, in fierce summer heats, the river dries up to
the point of turning into a small brook. Along with water shortage,
a commonplace unrest emerges invoked by the failure to satisfy one of
the most basic human needs." The author goes on presenting an enormous
number of "water lawsuits" that piled in the Justice of Peace court.

In the face of such water shortage, the honorable supervisor of
Nakhijevan uyezd school, Avetis Ter-Mikirtichyants, from the town of
Agulis, constructed water-pipes on his own expenses, which started
to irrigate the city with fresh spring water. Besides, he constructed
pools in various parts of the city to collect the water.

"The Collection of the Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes
in the Caucasus" is a large-scale publication of narrative sources
carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in
1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history,
life, way of life and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples
inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire.

http://www.panorama..../03/nakhijevan/
 



#3 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 03 August 2015 - 10:03 AM

10:28 03/08/2015 » SOCIETY

Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Armenian witnesses about Erivan Fortress capture

Panorama.am continues presenting pieces of the history of Yerevan from the Collection of the Caucasus Educational Okrug. Erivan Seminary teacher K. Shulgin’s article was published in its fourth edition. The article is about Erivan fortress capture based on the stories of the witnesses who were still alive in 1884. 

Noting the paucity of literature on the history of Erivan Fortress’ capture by Paskevich and wishing to fill this gap, the author started to collect data from the elderly Armenian witnesses with the help of Erivan teachers' seminary pupils. 

Remarkably, the author describes the fortress as "bulwark of Persia", for it was considered to be "impregnable." "The fortress – encircled in a wall of burnt and partly not burned bricks fastened with mud (the method applied in all the local facilities) – is located in a structural basin surrounded by hills, quite a convenient place for erecting fortifications.... Opening fire from the guns alone would be enough to utterly destroy the city and the fortress itself," the author wrote. As for the participants of the protection of the fortress and the city, the author notes, "Persians relied little on their stronghold and tried to prevent Paskevich from getting close to the city."

"The Armenians constituted a significant, predominant element of Erivan’s population. In order to weaken the party, which was dissatisfied with the Persian dominion and was ready to assist the Russian army, Sardar ordered in advance to send several Armenian families to Persia and appointed a Matas-aga as their head. Those who did not fulfill this commandment were killed," the author writes, and notes that the deported Armenian residents returned to the city after the fortress was captured. 
The description of the city Khans and their behavior is due of mention. According to the story, Sardar Hasan Khan retreated to the small fortress Jafar-Abbad with the cavalry, and remained there until Erivan’ seizure. Later he fled to Persia. Khan’s brother Hussein, who took the runaway’s place, was "not a brave man." He escaped through an underground passage on the fourth day of the siege, leaving his troops to the mercy of fate. However, after making sure that "Russians were not shooting any longer," he returned. He failed to achieve any military success, and finally was captured. 

Meanwhile, according to the author, the Armenian artillerymen were accused of the defeat and executed for treason.
“The Collection of the Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history, life, way of life and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire. 
The primary purpose of publishing “The Collection” was to “find means” to contribute to the spiritual life of the teachers and prevent their degradation. “Without such a support, even a competent and sufficiently educated young teacher can gradually, without even noticing it, be subjected to the influence of the surroundings and finally turn into a ‘teacher-craftsman’ who does not differ from the villagers around him but for his knowledge of this or that reading and writing,” the foreword of “The Collection” reads.
To that end, a decision was made to assign the teachers to carry out extra researches, that is, to make a comprehensive research of the region each teacher lived and worked in. 

In addition, these activities would serve “as a fence for the teachers from apathy, erroneous directions and interests in harmful and extraneous inspirations” and “keep them on the level of the education they got and support their further self-perfection.” It can also result in a practical benefit: it will create an objective description of the region and become a source of huge information for the description of the region. A fortiori, there was already a similar positive experience of gathering materials about Kuban and Stavropol in 1879.

As a help, a list of questions of interest is offered to the researchers, including history, economics, statistics, demography, ethnography of the settlements under research, as well as bibliography and archive documents on which the research should be based.

Related:
19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan
 
 

Source: Panorama.am



#4 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 04 August 2015 - 09:01 AM

SCIENTIFIC EDITION ABOUT ANCIENT ARMENIAN CEMETERY IN JULFA DESTROYED BY AZERBAIJANIS

12:30 04/08/2015 Â" POLITICS

1881 of the project "The Collection of Materials to Describe the
Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus," Nakhijevan city school inspector
K.A. Nikitin published an extensive research titled "Nakhijevan:
Biblical and legendary tales, historical data and ancient monuments."

The author of the research gave a detailed description of the city
Nakhijjevan, as well as the more or less significant towns and
settlements in the uyezd. In a brief historical excurse across the
area, the author notes that the patriarchal see and the Armenian kings'
capital used to be in Nakhijevan before Byzantine Empire conquered
it in the 11th century.

The town Nikitin first refers to in the research is Julfa (Armenian
name Jugha). "A handful of Armenians have settled down here since the
ancient times. This settlement is the famous Julfa mentioned in the
works of the Armenian historians from the remotest times. The abutments
of two or three bridges that used to go over the river Araks in the
ancient times can be still seen in the river here. Caravans took
merchandize from Persia to Armenia and back across these bridges;
Julfa was the main crossroads on this way," the author writes.

As for the population and their fate, he notes that over 50 thousand
people inhabited Julfa back in 1600. Still now (1881 - ed.), only
a remarkably vast cemetery with countless tombstones is remaining
from the town. The tombstones, resembling the sepulchers in Hellas,
depict the craft of those deceased and emblems symbolizing what they
were renowned for during the lifetime. In 1605, Shah Abbas destroyed
Julfa, and his troops looted it. The 50 thousand inhabitants in 12
thousand families were exiled to Persia and settled nearby Ispahan;
here they founded the suburb New Julfa.

"A tiny village still exists on the place Julfa used to stand in
those times. Only recently, between 10 and 12 families still dwelled
here, but in 1848, they left the gorge and moved to another place,"
the author writes.

Thousands of Armenian khachkars (cross-stones) were destroyed in Old
Jugha, which was included into the territory of Azerbaijan along with
Nakhijevan. The latest reported case of destruction of khachkars was
in 2005-2006, when the Azerbaijani soldiers broke down the khachkars
with heavy equipment. The territory of the cemetery was turned into a
shooting-ground. There used to be about 10 thousand Armenian khachkars
of 9-17 centuries in Jugha before the barbaric destruction.

"The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the
Caucasus" is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried
out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908.

It includes researches and description of the history, life, way of
life and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the
Caucasus region of the Russian Empire.

http://www.panorama..../04/nakhijevan/
 



#5 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 04 August 2015 - 09:14 AM

15:23 04/08/2015 » COMMENTS

Scientific edition of Russian Empire: For 40 centuries no nation justified Armenians’ trust

In the second edition for the year 1881 of the project “The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,” Nakhijevan city school inspector K.A. Nikitin published an extensive research titled “Nakhijevan: Biblical and legendary tales, historical data and ancient monuments.” 

Nikitin presents rather interesting ethnographic observations about the Nakhijevani Armenians’ character and way of life. For that purpose, he carried out a study of the “village estates” of the Armenian population of Nakhijevan uyezd as he believed that “the earlier Armenians’ patriarchal life was preserved in its original purity only there.” 

First, the author refers to the history, conditions and way of the Armenians’ schooling and education, pointing that the adoption of Christianity became the base for further development. “After the introduction of Christianity into Armenia, they took to education more persistently and already in the 4th century, the Armenian alphabet was created. Soon, manuscripts of primarily spiritual content started to appear, as well as schools of different degrees,” he writes.

The author notes that although the Armenians mastered Medicine, Astronomy and History, their primary education was first of all based on spiritual books exceptionally. Notably, the wealthy Armenians preferred to send their children to study in Rome and Greece, the educational centers of the time.

Nikitin highlights that the Armenians had all the opportunities for development due to their love for sciences and art, yet the internal discords led to Armenia’s fragmentation into small separate principalities that went under the rule of various nations in Europe and Asia. However, the clergy put in all the efforts to retain the ray of development and the education level of the people. They primarily operated for religious purposes, still were not able to fully recover the energy and will the early Armenians used to have. 

Further, Nikitin describes the ethnographic characteristics of the Armenians who were already under the influence of the invaders, “Central Asian tribes.” Nikitin notes that their character and the worldview changed as they formed their attitude to the life, to the world and peoples around from the point of view of conquered and rightless residents of their own country. “Generally, the history had a strong, and, one might say, tangible impact on the development of the Armeniana. Under its influence, they became hardworking, sparing and keen-witted in everything that concerned their profit and provisions for future, as well as those of their generations,” the author points. He stresses that the negative features in the Armenians’ character were the result of the distrust towards the other nations “for throughout their 40-century-long existence, there was not a single nation to justify their trust.” 
“The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history, life, way of life and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire. 

Related:
19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Armenian witnesses about Erivan Fortress capture 
 

Source: Panorama.am



#6 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 05 August 2015 - 08:26 AM

16:19 05/08/2015 » ANALYSIS

Russian Empire reference book: Baku Governorate has less historical monuments than Erivan

The “Appendix N4 to the old-timer’s reference book ‘The Caucasus’” titled “Baku and its surroundings,” was published in Tbilisi in 1891 and was “mainly of guidebook-nature.” It relates the history of the city Baku and Baku Governorate. 
According to the authors, the historical name of Baku Governorate was Albania, and was renamed to Shirvan after Persia captured it in the 6th century BC. 

“It is difficult to say who the Albanians were. Only some historical references give base to assume that they could be the highlanders of modern Dagestan, who lived in the areas adjacent to modern Baku Governorate,” according to the authors. As for the indigenous population of the area, the authors write that “the Albanians, Iberians (Georgians) and the neighboring Armenians inhabited the whole Transcaucasia by then.” 

Further, the authors write about the history of the seizure of the region by the more powerful states in the neighborhood, as well as by the nomadic tribes, including Khazars, Arabs, Mongols, Tatars and Turks. 

Before Shirvan’s joining to the Russian Empire in 1820, the area was a theater of Turkish-Persian and Sunni-Shia wars, going under the control of this or that Muslim power. During the whole period, Shirvan was nothing more than a province, khanate or several small khanates independent from each other, whose rulers were appointed and changed upon the neighboring states’ will. 
“As the city of Baku regards, some sources attribute its origin to the 6th century AD, while others indicate to the 10th century. The Mongols’ advent in the 13th century and Khalilullah’s reign contributed to the city’s decoration with various beautiful structures whose remains have been preserved to this day. Generally, Baku did not exist independently, and had some significance as one of the main cities of Shirvan Khanate,” the author writes. 

The description of the historical and architectural look of the city and the Governorate is of special interest. “…today, there are significantly less ancient monuments (fortresses, temples, etc.) in Baku Governorate than in the other parts of Transcaucasia, for instance, Erivan, Kutaisi and Tiflis Governorates,” the authors point. 

Related:
19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Nakhijevan was prominent Armenian city founded in C16 BC 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire about Muslim Tatars’ untidy life in modern Azerbaijan territory 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: For 40 centuries no nation justified Armenians’ trust 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Armenian witnesses about Erivan Fortress capture 
 

Source: Panorama.am



#7 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 07 August 2015 - 09:26 AM

19:02 07/08/2015 » POLITICS

Scientific publication recounts historical data about C15th Armenian village Kusapat in Artsakh

In the 13th edition for the year 1892 of the project “The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,” Kasapet school inspector G. Israelov published an article dedicated to the village Kasapet (Kusapat), Artsakh, founded by the descendants of the Armenian dynasty Hasan-Jalalyans in the Elisabethpol Governorate of the Russian Empire.

The author starts the article with a few interesting versions about the origin of the name of the village. As the first and popular version has it, a devout bricklayer took to the gratis construction of a church in the village for the sake of the salvation of his soul. However, after learning that the inhabitants of the village intended to pay for the work, he ran away leaving the church half built. Hence the name of the church, “Kisapat” (“half wall” in Armenian), that is, half built. 

According to another version, the village takes its name “Ku(y)sapat” (“Monastery” – ed.) from the many Armenian women’s monasteries around the village – Egin-Aghbyur, Dadvor, Chiknaver, Hripsime and Gharibkhach. It is claimed that a nunnery called “Kuysapat” used to exist on the place of old Kasapet Church in the ancient times, and that the name of the village “Kusapat” derived from that word. Later, Russians altered it into “Kasapet.” 

The locals preserved the following legend about the times the village was founded: When Karabakh was under Persian domination, Atabek (early 15th century – ed.), from the House of Hasan-Jalalovs, won a Persian sovereign’s favor due to his braveness and energy and asked to let him return to his ancestors’ estates in his homeland beyond the river Araks,. “The Persian sovereign permitted Atabek and several families to choose a place he loved in the estates of his ancestors, Hasan-Jalalovs, in the territories between the rivers Terter and Khachen and settle there. At the beginning, Atabek settled down in a gully, now called ‘Hin Shen’ (‘Հին շէն’), that is ‘Old Village,’ with his and other families. Eventually, the inhabitants of Hin Shen resettled to the place where the village ‘Kasapet’ is situated now, a quarter of verst (266 m – ed.) from Hin Shen,” the author writes. 

As a result of continuous destructions and devastations caused by Lezgians and Tatars, who attacked Kasapet and other surrounding villages, it was utterly deserted in the late 18th century. After Agha Mohammad Khan invaded it twice, the inhabitants of this Artsakhian village abandoned it to seek a new shelter in Georgia and Russia. “Meanwhile, all the remaining villages of the area called Jraberd (‘Water Fortress’) were deserted, too,” Israelov writes. 

However, one of Atabek’s descendants, Hovhannes Yuzbashi, later known by the name Van Atabekov, followed his ancestors’ example. He did not wish to abandon his homeland, that is why he took his family and servants and left Gyanja for his village Kasapet. 

“Living in an area between the cities of Shushi and Elisabethpol, a theater of war between the Persians and the Russians, Hovhannes Yuzbashi continuously rendered important services to the constrained Russian squad under well-known heroes in the Caucasus, Colonel Karyagin and Major Kotlyarevsky,” Israelov points. He cites N. Dubrovin’s “The history of war and domination of Russians in Caucasus” to note that the event took place in 1805. 

Later, Hovhannes Yuzbashi refounded the village Kasapet on its former ruined place and brought twenty families of Kasapet residents back there from the village Snkapat, where they had resettled during Agha Mohammad Khan’s invasion. 
In 1812-14, after receiving Melik’s title, Vani Atabekov “brought newcomers from all the parts to the village Kusapat, so that the number of homes on the village grew to 150 in a short period of time.” A few years later, he resettled the newcomers from the village Kasapet to other old and ruined villages, establishing settlements there: Ulu-Karabek, Kichik-Karabek, Magavuz, Lyulasaz, Gyul-Yatag and Jan-Yatag.

“Meanwhile, new residents inhabited Kasapet. At the moment, according to off-site data, there are 300 homes with 2279 people in the village, including 1210 men and 1069 women. Apart from the main village, they also leave in five settlements, namely Demrlakh, Uratag, Mardagir-dakh, Garataf, Mamurlin-Yatag,” the author notes. 

The reason why some Kasapet residents left the main village and went down Kasapet gorge to settle by the main road, is that the main village was far from the plough-land, which made it difficult to take the agricultural products to the village. 

The description of the archaeological monuments and places of worship of the Armenian inhabitants of Kasapet is of special interest. The author writes about the spring “Yegin-Aghbyur” (“Deer’s Spring”), “Gharib-Khach” (“Wanderer’s Cross”), the monastery “Inne-Mas” (“Nine Powers”), worshipping place “Tavara-Khach” (“Cattle’s Shrine”), the monastery “Yerek-Manuk” (“Three Boys”), the ruins of the fortress Kaghakategh (“City Place”), and others. 

“The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history, life, and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire. 

Related:
19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Nakhijevan was prominent Armenian city founded in C16 BC 
Russian Empire reference book: Baku Governorate has less historical monuments than Erivan 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: For 40 centuries no nation justified Armenians’ trust 
 

Source: Panorama.am



#8 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 11 August 2015 - 09:14 AM

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATION ABOUT MONASTERY IN ARMENIAN VILLAGE VERIN AGULIS, NAKHIJEVAN

15:43 11/08/2015 Â" POLITICS

In the 13th edition for the year 1892 of the project "The Collection of
Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus," Chaykend
(Getashen) school inspector A. Tumanov published an article dedicated
to the Monastery of St. Thomas in the village Verin ("Upper") Agulis
in Nakhijevan uyezd of the Erivan Governorate of the Russian Empire.

"The monastery to St. Thomas the Apostle is in the village Verin Agulis
in Nakhijevan uyezd, Erivan Governorate, 5 versts from town Ordubad,"
Tumanov writes. (1 verst = 1.067 kilometers)

The way taking to the monastery is protected from two sides with
mountains, and from the third side with the river Arpa. It takes the
visitors to their destination through the village Verin Agulis. The
Armenians constitute the dominating element of the population of this
village. Every year, on St. Thomas the Apostle's day, the Christians
gather in this monastery for worship. It is headed by a special
superior appointed by Echmiadzin synod.

"Even though the monastery is not considered to be a parish church,
the evening and morning worship services conducted there are attended
by many inhabitants of Agulis," the author notes.

The article also recounts a noteworthy legend about the creation
of St. Thomas the Apostle Monastery. According to the legend, it
was founded by Bartholomew the Apostle, who was sent to Armenia by
the Savior after His Ascension to heal the King Abgar from a grave
disease. While St. Bartholomew was in Agulis, St. Thomas the Apostle
was preaching in India. Hearing about Thomas' martyrdom, Bartholomew
built a chapel in Nakhijevan to the Martyr's memory. Later on, St.

Gregory the Illuminator turned it into a monastery.

The author cites an inscription carved on the Western doors of the
monastery temple, which testifies, "Bartholomew, who came to the
Armenians and founded here this House of God in the name of St.

Thomas, consolidated the throne of his disciple Komsi. He appointed
him to be the head of the congregation of Goghtn canton (one of the
cantons in ancient Armenia, comprising the aforementioned villages
and town of Ordubad - author's note): Blizhniy Agulis ("Near" Agulis)
and much-praised Dasht (Nerkin ('Lower') Agulis), annexing also Tsgna,
Ramis, Busta, Faraka, Bugrut ... Dastak, Vanand, Trunis, Tnakert,
Obovanis, Kaghakik, Anapat, Handamej, Verin Get, Kesher, Nusnis and
Ordubad. After coming and seeing Nomos (Bartholomew's disciple, whose
tomb is in Agulis, local legends say - author's note), St. Gregory
confirmed this in 305 AD and made a copy of this inscription."

Another testimony is inscribed on the Western wall of the temple. It
says the monastery was last renovated in 1694. "It is built of ashlar
facing with solid masonry of lime mortar. A majestic dome towers up by
the Western narthex," Tumanov describes the way the monastery looked
by the end of the 19th century.

St. Thomas' Monastery ("Tovma" in Armenian) ceased to exist in the
21st century as the Azerbaijani authorities destroyed it.

"The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the
Caucasus" is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried
out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908.

It includes researches and description of the history, life, and
ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus
region of the Russian Empire.

http://www.panorama..../11/nakhijevan/
 



#9 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 15 August 2015 - 09:32 AM

13:48 15/08/2015 » POLITICS

Scientific publication of Russian Empire about destruction of Christian monuments in Barda by Tatars

G. Osipov, a teacher at Kasapet school, published an article in “The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,” dedicated to the historical monuments and legends about the destruction of the city of Barda (old name Partav). 

“Only a worshipping place called ‘Imam,’ ruins of houses, and perhaps, gigantic chinars are remaining from the ancient city that used to exist here (according to legend, the capital of the Albanian or Aghvanian kingdom) as evidence of the former beauty of the capital,” the author writes.

Local Armenians said ‘Imam’ used to be a church, but the Tatars turned it into a mosque wiping the inscriptions and images of saints off the interior walls. Meanwhile, the Tatars claim the relics of St. Imam, Ali’s son, are preserved here; Panakh Khan brought them from Persia and built the mosque. 

“It is hard to say which version is true. However, the interior structure and architecture of ‘Imam’ mosque remind of ancient Armenian churches,” the author points.

The legends concerning the destruction of the Aghvanian capital of Partav (now Barda) also vary. According to one of these legends, it snowed for five days on the mountainous part of the uyezd during the Feast of the Transfiguration of Our Lord (Vardavar), then it melted immediately. As a result, the river Tartar overflowed its banks flooding the entire city. Those saved resettled in other places. 

As another legend has it, during Timur Lang’s (Tamerlane) invasion, Partav confronted him for several months. Realizing that it was impossible to take Partav with force, Tamerlane sent envoys to the Aghvanian king to give him precious gifts and ask for piece. The Aghvanian king was glad at Tamlerlane’s proposal and in response, sent envoys with rich gifts for him. Tamerlane moved on outwardly looking pleased and friendly. The king and the people were very glad to have been able to get rid of Tamlerlane that easy. However, their happiness did not last long. The following night, when the people were sleeping safe for their fate, Tamerlane unexpectedly attacked the city, plundered it and slaughtered the inhabitants.

“The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history, life, and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire.

Related:
Scientific publication recounts historical data about C15th Armenian village Kusapat in Artsakh 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Nakhijevan was prominent Armenian city founded in C16 BC 
19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan 
 

Source: Panorama.am



#10 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 20 August 2015 - 09:32 AM

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATION OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE ABOUT ARMENIAN MONASTERY KARMIR VANK IN NAKHIJEVAN

16:47 20/08/2015 Â" REGION

In the 27th issue for the year 1900 of the project "The Collection
of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,"
Jagin district two-year school inspector A. Ter-Markarov published
an article, dedicated to one of the pearls of the early Medieval
Armenian architecture, the 5th century monastery Karmir Vank in the
territory of Nakhijevan uyezd of Erivan Governorate.

Constructed of red cut stone in early 5th century, the monastery
Karmir Vank is situated on a small hill on the left bank of river
Araks, not far from a village of the same name.

A folktale says Karmir Vank ("Red Monastery") received its name after
"Vardan's war" (the battle of Avarayr), when all the wounded were
taken there from the battlefield. "The yard and all the stairs taking
into the monastery were painted with the blood of the wounded," the
author describes. However, he believes the red color of the stone
used to build the monastery is a more credible reason for the name.

Notably, the monastery is called Astapat by some due to the village
Astapat 3 versts from it. The monastery of St. Vardan or Astapat St.

Vardan is situated not far from that village (1 verst = 1.067 km). The
name of the village originated in the 5th century, when St. Vardan was
wounded and killed in war with the Persians under Shapuh's reign. His
body was taken to the left bank of the river Araks, and wrapped in
a shroud in the place the monastery stands now. Hence the name of
the place, Astapat: "ast" means "here" and "pat" - "wrap". Later the
Saint's body was taken to the Mamikonyans' crypt in Mush.

Karmir Vank monastery was built in the Archdeacon Protomartyr St.

Stephen's honor not far from the ancient town of Khram, now ruined.

There are no ancient dwellings or settlements around the monastery.

In order to picture the whole beauty of the monastery, the author
describes thoroughly its architectural peculiarities and the
"signs" centuries left on it to mark the events connected with the
reconstructions, alterations, its priors' biography and dates of
their deaths. Biblical scenes and characters are also carved in the
walls of the monastery.

"The outside walls are smooth and embellished with inscriptions. The
Northern wall is especially notable in two places carrying carvings
showing the Baptism of Jesus Christ, St. Stefan with a cross in his
hands, and an image of the monastery and two crosses of an arshin in
front of him (= 0.711 m, - ed.). Another cross is carved in the Western
outside wall on four 12 vershok-long and 8 vershok-wide marble stones
set in it (1 vershok = 4.45 cm, - ed.). One of them has an inscription
about constructions in 1108, that is, 1658," the author describes.

Above the doors taking into the church, on both sides, images of
crosses and indications of different years can be noticed. One of them
reads "summer, 426," another "526," the third "730," the fourth "920"
and the fifth "1139." There are more dates carved in the walls inside
the church, too. "These years denote the times of the construction
of the monastery and the other buildings around it. One of the
inscriptions reads 550 BC, that is, 1100," the author writes.

Various pictures are also carved around the windows, in particular,
those of St. Trinity, the Ascension of Our Lord, the Savior's tortures
and death, the Entry of the Most Holy Theotokos into the Temple,
the Binding of Isaac and others. There are pictures and inscriptions
in Armenian between the windows as well. Small pieces of glass of
various colors are set in the windows; the Four Evangelists' pictures
are carved a little below.

The archimandrite Jacob's marble tomb, embellished with pictures
of various animals and plants and Armenian inscriptions, is on the
Southern side of the church.

There are six memorial headstones in the bell tower. Only one of them
has its marble covering preserved, picturing a crozier, a two-headed
snake, and a cross in the center with an epitaph inscribed on its
sides. Some pieces of stone depicting lion can be seen among the
remains of the dome of the bell tower, which was destroyed of an
earthquake in 1840. There is no cemetery around the church itself,
but there are two outside its gates.

There is also a church based on a cliff. Describing the decoration of
the church, as well as the images and inscriptions on its internal
walls, the author points out that the Saints' portraits are painted
without mentioning their names.

There is a Gospel at church written on parchment in 654, that is,
1205 AD (it is currently kept in Etchmiadzin Cathedral, - ed.). The
Armenian historian Arakel Davrizhetsi (dead in 1118, that is, 1663)
wrote about that Gospel in his works.

Another handwritten Gospel with a silver cross on its cover reading
"St. Cross is kept in Karmir Vank monastery in honor of Theotokos,
there is a memory to the archimandrite Jacob and his parents Hovhannes
and Khanabeki. Summer 1121 (1671)." It is unknown to what century
the handwritten Gospel belongs to, according to the author.

According to the information, many Saints' relics are kept in the
monastery. Particularly, Archdeacon Protomartyr St. Stephen's relics
are kept in a gilded silver reliquary, and those of St. Aristaces,
the son of St. Gregory, Armenia's illuminator, are kept in silver
and gilded reliquary with pieces of cross. St. John the Baptist and St.

Virgin Barbara's relics are also kept here.

Ter-Markarov also writes about a cut-stone pool, where the adults,
who wished to adopt the Christian faith, were baptized in the ancient
times. It also served as a spring for the abode during the Persian
attacks.

The monastery is kept at the expense of the devotees attending it,
and some dozens of pieces of land.

Remarkably, according to V. A. Schnirelmann, St. Stephen's monastery
of 7th century, known as "Red Monastery" ("Karmir Vank") in the town
of Astapat, Nakhijevan, "is a significant monument of the Armenian
Medieval architecture."

"The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the
Caucasus" is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried
out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908.

It includes researches and description of the history, life, and
ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus
region of the Russian Empire.

Related: Scientific publication recounts historical data about C15th
Armenian village Kusapat in Artsakh

Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Nakhijevan was prominent Armenian
city founded in C16 BC

19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical
data about ancient Erivan

Scientific publication about village Vartashen and Udis, Armenians,
Jews and Tatars living there

http://www.panorama....20/nakhichevan/
 



#11 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 29 August 2015 - 10:26 AM

12:48 29/08/2015 » Analysis

Scientific publication of Russian Empire: Tatars in Zangezur uyezd looted, roamed and caviled Armenians

In the 34th issue for the year 1904 of the project “The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,” the inspector of Hinzir two-year school, N. Shirakuni, published a study, dedicated to Zangezur uyezd. It covers the time the author lived and includes the nature in the uyezd, its agriculture, manners and life of the locals, education and the attitude towards education. The study also contains historical data and recounts the religious structures and ancient monuments there.

Situated in a valley between the Karabakh and Nakhijevan mountain ranges, Zangezur uyezd is almost furrowed by rugged landscape, with big and small rocky ridges stretching to various directions, sometimes parallel to each other and forming deep gorges between each other, which abound in natural openings and caves.

“Standing separately or piled on each other in fascinating groups, the protruding cone-shaped cliffs, resembling church cupolas, give a particularly original look to the country. Those cliffs are the silent witnesses of some bygone volcanic upheaval of prehistoric era,” this is how the author describes the beauty of Zangezur’s nature.

The locals, according to the author, had a kind of special religious respect towards those cliffs. Moreover, every cliff in the plain had its special name, and many folk legends were told about them.

“One of the legends is about a young man from the village of Hinzirak, who once wanted to break a cliff two versts to the north from the village for domestic needs. When he began to break it with a hammer, a voice from inside the cliff said reproaching, ‘he who dared to raise his hand against me will turn blind.’ After this incident, the young man lost his eyesight. From that time on, the inhabitants of Hinzirak put candles and torches around that cliff on holidays, and call it ‘Surb Kar’ (‘Holy Stone’),” the author writes.

People preserve various legends about the origin of the word “Zangezur.” According to one of these legends, it is a mutilated form of the Armenian phrase “ծակերի-ձոր” (“tsakeri dzor”, that is, “gorge of holes”) or “զանգ-զօրաւոր” (“zang zoravor”, that is, “powerful bell”). As a folk tale has it, there used to be a huge bell not far from the settlement Gerusi (Goris, ed.). Its toll could be heard from a few versts distance, that is why people started to call it “zang zoravor.” However, some people claim it derived from the word “ծաղկաձոր” (“tsakhadzor”, that is, “gorge of flowers”).

The inhabitants of Zangezur were engaged in cattle-breeding, gardening, horticulture, beekeeping and cottage industry, but their main occupation was arable farming. “Primarily, wheat is sowed here, and the wheat of the best quality, the red wheat, is produced in the villages Dig, Khinzirak, Geranzur,” the author notes.

The population of the area comprised Armenians and Shia Tatars. “The Tatars lead semi-nomadic lifestyle. Unlike the Armenians, they are not engaged in seasonal occupation, but like bad farmers, they farm only to cover their family needs,” the author describes the locals’ lifestyle.

He notes that the nomadic life developed the habit of permanent roaming in Tatar villagers and they could not stay in one place for long. The Tatars were also inclined to cavil, that is why their complaints usually were not attended. Not having residence and own husbandry, many of them were scattered about different villages in the uyezd. As a result, they often devoted themselves to looting.

Some Armenian villages, whose inhabitants’ occupation was farming exceptionally, kept significant number of horned cattle, and there was no enough forage for them inside the village. Consequently, the people had to move to summer camps with their cattle; few people were left in the village with their main occupation remaining looking after the arable lands. By taking the cattle away from the village during the period when the breadstuff grew, the villagers spared them from sudden “damages and spoiling.” It was good to feed the cattle in the mountain pastures in summer until they were needed for helping them harvest or process the crops.

The villages inhabited by the Armenians were situated in deep gorges with lots of natural and artificial caves. There was a “tonir,” a pit dug in the ground for making bread, built in one of the rooms of the house, and its walls were thickly covered with fire-resistant clay. There was also a hearth for making hot dishes in the same room. The Zangezur people’s main food constituted lavash, cheese, eggs, butter, milk, dry fruit and vegetables, rarely mutton and poultry, the author recounts.

Since 1894, the education embarked on a period of quick development: the number of open schools reached to forty. “Before the opening of the official schools, there were fairly a lot of Armenian parochial schools, but they were of narrow national character and pursued their national and religious aims,” the author points out.

He further highlights that the Tatars practically did not go to the official schools opened in the uyezd for them because the modern life was generally alien to them due to the influence of their clergy, and they avoided the Russian schools. “Even if they send their children to those schools, they do not see that they attend the classes regularly. The benefit their children could get from the information gained at school is of little interest to them,” the author writes.

The prevailing part of the Armenian population of the uyezd, on the contrary, understood the benefits and necessity of knowing the Russian language and realized that the school did not trample on their nationality and faith. Subsequently, their sympathy to the school grew. The school “weaned the children from gross and bad habits, foul language, mistreatment to animals and untidiness,” and gave them a vision of better conditions of life.

To be continued.
“The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history, life, and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire.

Related:
Scientific publication of Russian Empire about destruction of Christian monuments in Barda by Tatars

19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan

C10th Arab geographer about customs of inhabitants of country of Khazars who did not look like Turks

Source: Panorama.am



#12 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 01 September 2015 - 10:16 AM

19:45 31/08/2015 » CULTURE

Scientific publication of Russian Empire: Legends about Armenian monastery Tsitsernavank

In the 34th issue for the year 1904 of the project “The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,” the inspector of Hinzir two-year school, N. Shirakuni, published an essay, dedicated to Zangezur uyezd. It covers the time the author lived and includes a description of the nature in the uyezd, its agriculture, manners and life of the locals, education and the attitude towards education. The study also contains historical data and recounts the religious structures and ancient monuments there.
In the second part of the essay dedicated to the Zangezur uyezd N. Shirakuni writes about two Armenian monasteries, the legends about the ancient Tsitsernavank with Holy Agravakhach in its yard, and the inscriptions of Vorotna Vank Monastery. 

“Of the ancient monasteries in the Zangezur uyezd, Tsitsernavank, the ‘monastery of the Little Finger,’ stands out most with its architecture, magnificence and antiquity. It is 20 versts to the north from Khindzirak, on the lower top of a hill called Gochas,” the author writes. 

He recounts a legend about how Tsitsernavank was founded. In the ancient times, there lived in the village Gochas an Armenian melik, Tuman. His wickedness filled the villagers and clergy with hatred towards him. The burden of the sins behind Tuman turned back to him with loads of misfortunes. The Melik beseeched, “I lost my wife and children. I was deprived of my possessions. Now the hell is awaiting me. I am a sinner and lost forever. There is no salvation for me anymore!” He made up his mind to spend the rest of his life in St. Peter’s Monastery in Rome. A few years later, however, Jesus granted Melik with pardon and deliverance from sins in a dream. Some time later, St. Peter appeared to him and told him to take St. Peter’s right little finger, return to his homeland and erect a magnificent monastery on the flat top of the hill Gochas. 

“Waking up in the morning, the melik, without saying a word, carefully went downstairs to the underground cave under the Monastey, where St. Peter’s relics rested. He saw the little finger on the tomb, and taking it, carefully rose back from the holy cave. At that very moment, all the icons of saints fell off the walls with a terrible crash. Shocked by the sudden sight, the monks noted the melik getting out of the cave with the Apostole’s little finger and rushed in him to take it away. But suddenly a mysterious voice spoke from the altar, ‘Do not touch the melik!’ Then the monks let him off, and he safely returned to his homeland with Peter the Apostle’s little finger. Here, he buried the little finger on the flat top of Gochas in a grand solemnity, accompanied by huge crowds of clergy and people,” as the legend has it.

Later, Tuman the Melik erected Tsitsernavank Monastery (“Tsitsernavank” meaning “Monastery of the Little Finger”) – preserved to this day – on that very hill at his own expenses.

The monastery has one more remarkable sight. It is a cross-like stone buried in the ground by the western wall of the monastery. Under this cross, the body of St. Raven the Redeemer is buried, hence the name Agravakhach meaning “raven’s cross.”

As the legend has it, when the monastery was under construction, Tuman the Melik gave all the masters and workers dinner twice a week. Once, the cook cut the meat into small pieces, put them into a copper cauldron and went to fetch water. While he was away, a viper crawled into the cauldron and hid itself curling up under the pieces of the raw meat. The cook came back and poured the water he brought into the cauldron without suspecting anything. Then he closed it with a stone slab and put it on a hearth made on an open space not far from the monastery. Suddenly, a raven flew up croaking and whistling shrilly from somewhere and started to fly around the cauldron. It sat on the stone slab, then again flew up, then was even about to throw itself into the fire. Noticing this, the workers tried to drive it away; still the stubborn bird did not fly away from the cauldron. When the cook at last took up the slab to see whether the food was ready, the raven that was making circles above the cauldron threw itself inside it and finally cooked itself. This extraordinary sight induced Tuman the Melik and the workers the thought that the food got desecrated and unclean, so they made an anonymous decision to throw it away.

“But how astonished were they to notice cooked pieces of the snake in the food they just threw away! Only then did they understand why the raven was so insistently twirling and croaking, sacrificing itself to save more than 200 people from death,” the legend says.

The news about the miraculous incident quickly spread all over the surroundings, and people from all the places gathered there to see the body of the raven God sent to rescue over 200 people from real death. Upon the decision of the gathered people and clergy, the raven’s body was buried with Christian rites by the western wall of the monastery, the place the cross-like stone is erected, whence it got its name Agravakhach. Every year, on the holidays of the Ascension and Transfiguration of Christ, the people from all parts of Zangezur uyezd gathered in Tsitsernakakhach to worship St. Peter the Apostle’s little finger. Women bathed their children, who did not start walking soon, on Agravakhach and left there a couple of wax candles, two eggs and a horseshoe with two nails. 

Stepanos Orbelian, a 13th century Armenian historian, supposes Tsitsernavank was founded in the second half of the 9th century (884), along with Tatev and Vorotna monasteries.

“The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history, life, and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire.

Related:
Scientific publication of Russian Empire: Tatars in Zangezur uyezd looted, roamed and caviled Armenians

Scientific publication of Russian Empire about destruction of Christian monuments in Barda by Tatars 

C10th Arab geographer about customs of inhabitants of country of Khazars who did not look like Turks
 

Source: Panorama.am



#13 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 03 September 2015 - 04:48 PM

12:31 03/09/2015 » REGION

Scientific publication of Russian Empire about 9th century Armenian monastery Vorotna Vank

In the 34th issue for the year 1904 of the project “The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,” the inspector of Hinzir two-year school, N. Shirakuni, published an essay dedicated to Zangezur uyezd. It covers the time the author lived and includes a description of the nature in the uyezd, its agriculture, manners and life of the locals, education and the attitude towards education. The study also contains historical data and recounts the religious structures and ancient monuments there. 
In the third part of the essay dedicated to Zangezur uyezd, N. Shirakuni writes about the medieval Armenian monastery Vortnavank on the mountain of a picturesque gorge, along the deep stony bottom of which the small river Bagrushad flew with the famous Lalazar Bridge going over it. 

Shirakuni describes the inscriptions carved on the walls of the temple as evidences of the history of the monastery, the time it was reconstructed and the Armenian knights, who thus immortalized their names. 

“A peaked mountain, which was once the base of Vorotna fortress, is situated on the north-east from the monastery. A thick stone wall, which in some of its parts consists of natural cliffs, surrounds the monastery. The temple was founded in the first half of the 9th century in Hovhannes Vorotnetsi’s honor, hence the name, Vorotnavank,” the author explains. 

The monastery was constructed in accord with the Bizantine architecture. There are Armenian inscriptions of various historical epochs on all four walls of the monastery.

An inscription on the eastern side of the temple reads, “Knight Elikom, his (son) of Tarsachay, reconstructed the church in my memory.”

According to an inscription carved on the western side of the temple in 764 AD (1315), the sons of Elikom, Smbat’s brother and son of Tarsachay, a Knight from Sisak’s house, decided to reconstruct the destroyed temple and left a message about demarcation of the boundaries of the monastery. 

“We arranged that Father Mkhitar demarcates the borders of the monastery premises with the river Sirchanakar and Kaylich. The Armenian ‘tsagik’ gave the villages of Irimis and Shampi, and the entire land of Aghojants in Shnger with the water and garden to its homeland,” the inscription says. It also warns that he who appropriates the profits of the monastery or eliminates the inscription, will be responsible for that to God. 

A 1327 AD inscription on the northern side of the temple says, “Me, Ter-Stepanos Orbelian, Jalal’s son, Archbishop in the house of Sisakan, came to our paternal house, to the monastery Vahatnu (Vorotna), and saw a hotel constructed by my father Sargis for Burten and his children Beshken and Ivan’s longevity. And I myself wished to take part in that for my memory. Our Godfather gave our village and Kurgi temple to our monastery free from everything for the community had earlier given it, and we gifted our lots for the needs of the hotel. And after that, none of the Armenian kings and magnates has the right to appropriate or annihilate our gifts. May he be responsible for that to God, let he be seized from the three holy cathedrals (ecumenical) and receive the share Judah got. Amen.”

“The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history, life, and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire.

Related:
Scientific publication of Russian Empire: Legends about Armenian monastery Tsitsernavank 
Scientific publication of Russian Empire: Tatars in Zangezur uyezd looted, roamed and caviled Armenians 
Scientific publication of Russian Empire about destruction of Christian monuments in Barda by Tatars 
Scientific publication recounts historical data about C15th Armenian village Kusapat in Artsakh 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Nakhijevan was prominent Armenian city founded in C16 BC 
19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan 
 

Source: Panorama.am



#14 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 03 September 2015 - 04:50 PM

11:00 03/09/2015 » COMMENTS

Legend about beautiful Shahandukht and church she founded – scientific publication of Russian Empire

In the 13th issue for the year 1892 of the project “The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,” the inspector of Sar school, N. Grigorov, published an essay dedicated to the ancient Armenian village Tatev, the monuments in its surroundings, and the legends about it. 

The village Tatev takes its name from Tatev Monastery situated not far from it. The name derives from the Armenian words “Տա-Թեւ,” which are translated as “give wings.”

There is an Armenian legend about the origin of that name. According to it, an experienced bricklayer successfully finished the construction of Tatev Monastery and standing on a high wall asked the workers to bring him two small boards. Taking them in his hands, he kissed them and said, “Հոգին Սուրբ տա թեւ” (“May the Holy Spirit give wings”). “The moment he pronounced these words, wings grew on him and he flew away. In vain did the workers and gathered Christians try to find the bricklayer in the surroundings of Tatev. The local Christians did not know how to dismantle the enormous scaffold erected in the temple for construction but they heard that the bricklayer, constructor of the monastery lived in Constantinople. So they sent an envoy asking him to come back and complete the construction of the temple. Despite the envoy’s persistent requests, the bricklayer did not return to Tatev but opened him the secret how to dismantle the scaffold,” the legend says.

The village Tatev is situated in the center of Zangezur uyezd, not far from the city Gerusi (Goris. – ed.) 105 versts (about 111km) from Shushi. Tatev’s picturesque surroundings are rich in vegetation and the villages are surrounded by pastures reaching to Tatev Monastery and the splendid forests, which covered the neighboring mountains and went with terraces down to the gorge of the river. Thanks to the beautiful scenes, Tatev was long used by Syunik governors as residence. 

As for the ethnic composition of the population in Tatev and surrounding villages, the author notes that the whole population was exclusively Armenian of Armenian Gregorian faith. “With the exception of the three families of noble Orbelians and several families of spiritual rank, the population is of tax-paying class,” the author writes.

“The people in Tatev are very peaceful, kind and unusually thrifty. There is even a saying about their love for work, ‘He who does not do his work in time, cannot be Tatevian’,” Grigorov cites. 

Further, he presents the sights and religious structures in the surroundings of Tatev. In particular, he writes about the church Shahandukht (Շահանդուխտ), a dilapidated church at the bottom of a deep valley. It was built by the maid Shahandukht, whose relics were later buried there. The valley also bears her name – Shahandukht gorge (“Շահանդուխտի ձոր”).

Orbelian recounts a legend, which says Shahandukht, the daughter of the great Aghwanian knight Trdat, had rare beauty. Hearing about her, the Persian khans started to look for an occasion to kidnap her. Meanwhile, the Knight of Syunik proposed to her, but when she was on her way to her fiancé’s home, Persian troops sent by the khan attacked them trying to seize her. When the fiancée and her suite reached the cliff, a bloody fight unfolded between the Armenians and the Persians, and many people were killed from both sides. Being aware of the reason of the people’s death, the devout girl turned her horse, placed a cross on herself, and asking for St. Theotokos and St. Hripsimeh’s help threw herself off the cliff into the dreadful abyss. The Providence preserved Shahandukht, and she landed safe and sound with her horse. When the sanguine fight was over, the fiancé and his companions found her where she had thrown herself. However, despite her parents and fiancé’s persistent requests to get married, she renounced the worldly vanities and made a nun,” the legend says. 

Soon Shahandukht became widely renowned in the surroundings and lay sisters started to come to her. With their help, she built a small church under the rock. Then Shahandukht invited the Bishop of Tatev and handed him all the valuables her parents had given her as dowry. She asked the bishop to give half of those things to the poor, and make the rest of them the property of the monastery. 

Shahandukht passed away 30 years after taking the veil. When the bishop of Tatev Monastery learnt about her decease, he came and buried the holy maid’s relics inside the church she had built.

To be continued.

“The Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus” is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908. It includes researches and description of the history, life, and ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus region of the Russian Empire.

Related:
Scientific publication recounts historical data about C15th Armenian village Kusapat in Artsakh 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Nakhijevan was prominent Armenian city founded in C16 BC 
19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan 
 
 

Source: Panorama.am



#15 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 01 October 2015 - 10:00 AM

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATION OF RUSSIAN EMPIRE ABOUT ANCIENT MONASTERY KUSANATS ANAPAT IN ARTSAKH

16:13 30/09/2015 Â" SOCIETY

In the 19th issue for the year 1894 of the project "Collection of
Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus," the
inspector of Artsevanik school, E. Melik-Shahnazarov, published an
article dedicated to the ancient monuments in the Armenian village
Chenakhchi (Avetaranots) in Elisabethpol governorate, Shushi uyezd.

On a solitary cliff, by the foot of which a small river flows creating
several tiny wetlands on its way, stands the Monastery Kusanats
Anapat. It is situated on the very edge of the village Chenakhchi
with quite a passable way connecting them.

The southern side of the cliff of the Monastery goes steeply down to
the river, the eastern side is cracked into several pieces threatening
to fall down, and on the west, the cliff rests on the gates of an
ancient fortress, which end with the "devils' home."

There is no reliable data about the time, the saint or the events
stimulating the foundation of the monastery. However, there is a legend
about a king, who had accepted Mohammedanism and later repented and
constructed the monastery to spend the rest of his life there reading
the Gospel. "Since then, the village got its name Avetaranots, that
is, a place where the Gospel is kept," the author explains.

According to the author, the monastery served as a shelter for nuns
and sisters who since ancient times spent their time in peaceful
readings of the Gospel. However, Agha Mohammad Khan's invasion in
1797 put an end to that quiet life. According to a legend, when the
Persian sarbazes (soldiers) broke into the village, the nuns managed
to hide in the nearby forest. Still, one of them had left something she
needed in the monastery and went back for it. When she came out of the
monastery, a Persian soldier's sword flashed above her head. She was
able to run to the edge of the cliff, ask for the Holy Trinity and St.

Mary's help and threw herself down the cliff. "An invisible power
helped her land harmless and hide in the forest," the author writes.

Among the numerous legends about the monastery Kusanats Anapat, there
is the story of the True Cross embedded in silver and taken away with
other precious utensils during the invasion of the Persian troops.

"But six months later, the cross transformed into a falcon and flew
away from the captivity. It flew back to its native village and
transformed to its initial form again," the legend says. As another
legend has it, a deer appeared here every year on the Resurrection
Sunday, and willfully, as a victim sent by the Heaven, put its neck
under knife.

As for the architectural peculiarities of the monastery, the author
writes that it is constructed of local ashlar stones and has basilica
form. It has a simple roof with two pitches overgrown with moss,
grass and dog-rose bushes. A rectangular piece of stone carrying
image of a cross is placed on the eastern corner of the roof.

"The ground plan has the shape of a cross. The monastery has one
narthex on its south-western side, where some of its pious nuns and
meliks rest. Besides the narthex, there is a separate annex where
the sisters lived. The windows, one on the southern and three on the
eastern wall, are narrow and without decorations meagerly letting in
the light," the author describes.

There are two hiding-places on both sides of the stone altar. The
icon of the Sorrowful Mother is placed on it. Two ashlar columns
support lancet arches. Three arches between the columns are laid of
smooth stones and are covered with numerous tiny inscriptions. The
height of the arches, the dusk under them and the oldness make those
inscriptions difficult to read. Big stones with beautiful ornaments
are laid on the external walls.

"The monastery Kusanats Anapat has never been, nor will it ever be, a
parish church. Sometimes the local priests hold prayer services there
to spare it from God's punishments - drought, hail, illnesses, field
mice, grasshoppers and the like," Melik Shahnazarov writes. He also
writes that there was a small flat space in front of the monastery,
which the youth of the village, both male and female, used for
entertainments on holidays.

The "Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the
Caucasus" is a large-scale publication of narrative sources carried
out by the management of the Caucasus Educational Okrug in 1881-1908.

It includes researches and description of the history, life, and
ethnographic characteristics of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus
region of the Russian Empire.

Related:

19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical
data about ancient Erivan

Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Nakhijevan was prominent Armenian
city founded in C16 BC

Scientific publication of Russian Empire about destruction of Christian
monuments in Barda by Tatars

Scientific edition of Russian Empire: For 40 centuries no nation
justified Armenians' trust

http://www.panorama....30/avetaranots/
 



#16 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 05 October 2015 - 10:35 AM

16:52 05/10/2015 » SOCIETY

Scientific publication of Russian Empire about Armenian village Karintak in Artsakh

In the 25th issue for the year 1898 of the project “Collection of Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus,” V. Osipov, a teacher at Chayken school, published an article about the Armenian village Karintak. 

In the early 19th century, the inhabitants of the village Khdzaberd, bordering Zangezur, were driven out by the “barbarian khans” and moved to Karintak. The inhabitants of the village were said to be prominent with braveness and strict customs and proud of their braveness. They did not want to pay tribute to the khans. Subsequently, the khan of Aliyanlu, a Kurdish tribe, fought dreadful wars against them but lost every time. 

Realizing that he could not win the Khodzaburdians honestly and aware of their non-revengeful nature, the khan decided to make friends with them. He went to them, as if a as a guest, and before leaving, invited the leaders of the community to pay a return visit to him as a sign of friendship. The Khodzaburdians accepted the invitation. When they arrived at the khan’s place, he poisoned them during the meal and attacked the village. At the beginning, the inhabitants failed but they were able to drive the khan away in the end. 

On another occasion, the khan decided to use the Good Friday, during which the Khodzaburdians went to church at night. When all the seniors went to church, the khan surrounded the church with numerous horsemen and exterminated everyone inside. “For three days, the river Ekhtsaget on the side of the church was flowing with blood, which gave it a new name ‘Desecrated River’ (‘Հարամ գետ’),” the legend says. Many of the villagers who had remained in the village suffered the same destiny as their fellow villagers in the church. The survivors fled leaving their property to the foe. 

The space occupied by the village and its lands represents a basin with numerous hills and passes overgrown with bushes – the remains of the former forests with narrow and deep rocky gorges. “The branches of the Lesser Caucasus with two peaks, Big and Small Kirses right to the south of the village, surround the basin from west to south with a semicircle. A branch from Big Kirs, separated from Shushi Fortress with the river Dash Altinka, which divides those gigantic cliffs, makes another semicircle from the south to the east. The barren rocks of the Shushi Fortress, reaching almost a verst height in some places, also make a semicircle from the north,” describes the author the location of the village. 

The inhabitants were mainly engaged in delivery of wood, burning calx of fine quality, husbandry, cattle breeding, horticulture and partly gardening. 

Osipov points out Karintak’s “matchless hardworking” women who carried out a multitude of various works. Despite working more than men did, the women in Karintak were healthy and beautiful. They did not lose their beauty even at the old age. The author cites the local old women as saying, “When we work, we feel better. In case we sit around without having something to do, we fell unwell.”

“Indeed, she would be seen everywhere. As soon as the spring comes, she takes a piece of bread and goes to the cornfield to clear it from weeds, she works on par with her husband in the garden sowing herbs, while watering is her duty alone. In summer, as we saw above, she threshes the grain. Besides those works, she also does the domestic chores – she weaves carpets, mafrashes, kilims, saddlebags, sacks, horsecloths for donkeys, twists ropes, knits socks, sows shalwars, dresses and so on,” he writes. 

Further, the author describes the original garments the Karintak women liked to wear. The headdress covered almost everything on the face but the nose and the eyes. “They hang silver or gold coins on the forehead. Almost small-nut-size silver and gold coins are hung on the cheeks. The chin is covered with a white kerchief, which is also used to close the mouth while talking to the adults. A paperboard ring covered with red or blue velvet with various ornaments on the front side is put on the head. The headdress is finished with a shawl thrown on top and a silver chain round the neck over the shawl,” describes the author. The outwear consisted of arkhalugh, which reached the knees or longer, with sleeves decorated with silver sowing and pendants, and a shirt reaching the heels. Silver coins were hung on the breast. All this was bound with red calico or silver belts. Stockings, socks and green or reddish boots constituted the footwear. It was a shame, especially for the young women, to walk barefoot. 

Osipov writes that the people in Karintak were peaceful, hospitable and hardworking, but they were also rude and superstitious. “They work the whole year round. They will not sit around a minute without work. They work at night and on Sundays, too, if needed,” the author recounts noting that they lived 70 years. 

The aggressive nomadic surroundings, which stole their cattle, poisoned the cornfields and mowing places during the encampment, grew in the Karitakians a great passion to the weapon, which they used to protect themselves and their fortune from the nomads.

“Sometimes a tatar neighbor would steal a Karintakian’s cattle and then come and demand baksheesh to show the place of the stolen cattle. If the villager agreed, he got his fortune back. But if he complained on the thief, the latter would certainly take revenge. That is why the villagers in Karintak prefered to agree on a peaceful deal,” the author recounts. 
To be continued.

Related:
Scientific publication of Russian Empire about destruction of Christian monuments in Barda by Tatars 
Scientific edition of Russian Empire: Nakhijevan was prominent Armenian city founded in C16 BC 
19th century scientific edition of Russian Empire compiled historical data about ancient Erivan 
 

Source: Panorama.am



#17 Yervant1

Yervant1

    The True North!

  • Super Moderator
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 13,466 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 07 October 2015 - 10:44 AM

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATION: ARMENIANS IN KARINTAK RELIGIOUS, HARDWORKING AND CONCERNED ABOUT CHILDREN'S EDUCATION

11:28 07/10/2015 Â" SOCIETY

In the 25th issue for the year 1898 of the project "Collection of
Materials to Describe the Terrain and Tribes in the Caucasus," V.

Osipov, a teacher at Chayken school, published an article about the
population of the Armenian village Karintak in Artsakh.

The inhabitants of Karintak are Christian, of Armenian Gregorian
faith. There was one church in the village, St Theotokos, which had
two priests. Despite being religious, the inhabitants, especially
the youth, did not go to church often because of being busy at work.

"On the Holidays of Transfiguration of Jesus and Exaltation of
the Holy Cross, whole families of villagers go to St Ghevond's
Monastery, 30 vertsts from the village," the author writes noting
that the villagers also had places of worship, "The Green Cross" and
"Ofichifirum," where they went for sacrifices on Sundays and holidays.

The women were especially religious.

The author writes that the domestic life of the women in Karintak
was "decent." Before getting married, the girls did not cover their
faces and spoke with their relatives and neighbors. They closed their
faces after marriage and spoke only with their husbands. In case they
needed to say something to the household, they spoke to them through
little children or used various signs. With all this, the woman was
"the full housewife" for the women in the family, while the father
was "a full master" and disposer in the family - the sons could not
do anything without his advice.

In case the husband died, the widow took his place, and if she,
too, passed away, the elder son and his wife became the heads of
the family, and everyone obeyed them like parents. "In general, the
life here is patriarchal, one might say. However, the urban life,
especially outwardly, gradually starts to influence it," Osipov notes.

He highlights that the men are gentle to women, but at the same time,
the villager did not forget to say, "Giving a woman free will is the
same as losing control of the unbroken horse you are sitting on."

The author also writes about the Karintak villagers' attitude to their
children's education. Although there was no school in the village,
the inhabitants, especially the wealthy ones, did not leave their
children without education. The women were especially concerned about
the education. Even a widow, making a living by knitting socks, making
bread for others or something else, would make sure to send her son
to some institution in Shushi. According to Osipov, many educated
people from Karintak worked in different government agencies because
there was no institution without students from Karintak. Given this,
the inhabitants of the village started to think about opening a
school to make it easier for the children and women to get there
"as it is difficult for the children to go to the city every day."

Further, Osipov writes about the health issues in Karintak. Given
that the village was on the nomad Tatars' way, it was often infected
by various diseases. The cholera the nomads brought to the village
infected 944 people, 27 of whom died. "The horned cattle very often
suffers from plague and hoof and mouth diseases. Fever, smallpox,
measles, various inflammations and others are among the common diseases
met here," the author recounts.

Related: Scientific publication of Russian Empire about Armenian
village Karintak in Artsakh

http://www.panorama....story-qarintak/






0 user(s) are reading this topic

0 members, 0 guests, 0 anonymous users